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133 Cards in this Set

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Rostral/ Anterior
A directional term meaning toward the head of a four-legged animal.
Caudal/ Posterior
A directional term meaning toward the tail of a four-legged animal.
Inferior/ Ventral
A directional term meaning toward the belly of a four-legged animal.
Superior/ Dorsal
A directional term meaning toward the back of a four-legged animal.
Neuraxis
An imaginary line that runs the length of the spinal cord to the front of the brain.
Midline
An imaginary line dividing the body into two equal halves.
Ipsilateral
A directional term referring to structures on the same side of the midline.
Contralateral
A directional term referring to structures on opposite sides of the midline.
Medial
A directional term meaning toward the midline.
Lateral
A directional term meaning away from the midline.
Proximal
A directional term that means closer to center; usually applied to limbs; opposite of distal.
Distal
A directional term meaning farther away from another structure; usually in reference to limbs.
Coronal Section
An anatomical section dividing the brain front to back, parallel to the face. Also known as a frontal section.
Saggital Section
An anatomical section that is parallel to the midline.
Horizontal/ Axial
An anatomical section that divides the brain from top to bottom.
Meninges
The layers of membranes that cover the central nervous system and the peripheral nerves.
Dura Mater
The outermost of the three layers of meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Arachnoid Layer
The middle layer of the meninges covering the central nervous system.
Pia Mater
The innermost of the layers of meninges, found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Subarachnoid Space
A space filled with cerebrospinal fluid that lies between the arachnoid and pia mater layers of the meninges in the central nervous system.
Cerebrospinal Fluid
The special plasmalike fluid circulating within the ventricles of the brain, the central canal of the spinal cord, and the subarachnoid space.
Ventricle
One of four hollow spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
Choroid Plexus
The lining of the ventricles, which secretes the cerebrospinal fluid.
Central Canal
The small midline channel in the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid.
Carotid Artery
One of the two major blood vessels that travel up the sides of the neck to supply the brain.
Vertebral Artery
One of the important blood vessels that enter the brain from the back of the skull.
Central Nervous System (CNS)
The brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The nerves exiting the brain and spinal cord that serve sensory and motor functions for the rest of the body.
Spinal Cord
A long cylinder of nervous tissue extending from the medulla to the first lumbar vertebra.
Vertebral Column
The bones of the spinal column that protect and enclose the spinal cord.
Cervical Nerve
One of the first eight spinal nerves that serve the area of the head, neck, and arms.
Thoracic Nerve
One of twelve pairs of spinal nerves that serve the torso.
Lumbar Nerve
One of five spinal nerves serving the lower back and legs.
Sacral Nerve
One of the five spinal nerves that serve the back of the legs and the genitals.
Coccygeal Nerve
The most caudal of the spinal nerves.
White Matter
An area of neural tissue primarily made up of myelinated axons.
Gray Mater
An area of neural tissue primarily made up of cell bodies.
Dorsal Horns
Gray matter in the spinal cord that contains sensory neurons.
Ventral Horns
Gray matter in the spinal cord that contains motor neurons.
Withdrawal Reflex
A spinal reflex that pulls a body part away from a source of pain.
Hindbrain
The most caudal division of the brain, including the medulla, pons, and cerebellum.
Midbrain
The division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and forebrain.
Forebrain
The division of the brain containing the diencephalon and the telencephalon.
Brainstem
The lower two thirds of the brain, including the hindbrain and midbrain.
Myelencephalon/ Medulla
The most caudal part of the hindbrain.
Metencephalon
The division of the hindbrain containing the pons and cerebellum.
Nuclei
Collections of cell bodies that share a function.
Reticular formation
A collection of brainstem nuclei, located near the midline from the rostral medulla up into the midbrain, that regulate sleep and arousal.
Pons
A structure located in the metencephalon between the medulla and midbrain; part of the brainstem located in the hindbrain.
Cerebellum
A structure located in the metencephalon that participates in balance, muscle tone, muscle coordination, some types of learning, and possibly higher cognitive functions in humans.
Cochlear Nucleus
A nucleus found in the pons that receives information about sound from the inner ear.
Vestibular Nucleus
A group of cell bodies in the pons that receive input about the location and movement of the head from sensory structures in the inner ear.
Raphe Nuclei
Nuclei located in the pons that participate in the regulation of sleep and arousal.
Locus Coeruleus
A structure in the pons that participates in arousal.
Mesencephalon
Another term for midbrain, the division of the brain lying between the hindbrain and the forebrain.
Tectum
The "roof," or dorsal half, of the midbrain.
Tegmentum
The "covering," or ventral half of the midbrain.
Cerebral Aqueduct
The small channel running along the midline of the midbrain that connects the third and fourth ventricles.
Periaqueductal Gray
Gray matter surrounding the cerebral aqueduct of the midbrain that is believed to play a role in the sensation of pain.
Red Nucleus
A structure located within the reticular formation that communicates motor information between the spinal cord and the cerebellum.
Substantia Nigra
Midbrain nuclei that communicate with the basal ganglia of the forebrain.
Superior Colliculi
A pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that coordinate visually guided movements and visual reflexes.
Inferior Colliculi
A pair of bumps on the dorsal surface of the midbrain that process auditory information.
Diencephalon
A division of the forebrain made up of the hypothalamus and the thalamus.
Telencephalon
The division of the brain comprising the cerebral hemispheres.
Cerebral Hemisphere
One of the two large, globular structures that make up the telencephalon of the forebrain.
Thalamus
A structure in the diencephalon that processes sensory information, contributes to states of arousal, and participates in learning and memory.
Hypothalamus
A structure found in the diencephalon that participates in the regulation of hunger, thirst, sexual behavior, and aggression; part of the limbic system.
Pituitary Gland
A gland located just above the roof of the mouth that is connected to the hypothalamus and serves as a major source of hormones.
Basal Ganglia
A collection of nuclei within the cerebral hemispheres that participate in the control of movement.
Caudate Nucleus
One of the major nuclei that make up the basal ganglia.
Putamen
One of the nuclei contained in the basal ganglia.
Globus Pallidus
One of the nuclei making up the basal ganglia.
Subthalamic Nucleus
A small nucleus, located ventral to the thalamus, that is part of the basal ganglia.
Limbic System
A collection of forebrain structures that participate in emotional behavior and learning.
Hippocampus
A structure deep within the cerebral hemispheres that is involved with the formation of long-term declarative memories; part of the limbic system.
Amygdala
An almond-shaped structure in the rostral temporal lobes that is part of the limbic system.
Cingulate Cortex
A segment of older cortex just dorsal to the corpus callosum that is part of the limbic system.
Septal Area
An area anterior to the thalamus and hypothalamus that is often included as part of the limbic system
Olfactory Bulb
A structure extending from the ventral surface of the brain that processes the sense of smell; part of the limbic system.
Parahippocampal Gyrus
A fold of tissue near the hippocampus that is often included in the limbic system.
Mammillary Body
One of two bumps on the ventral surface of the brain that participate in memory and are included in the limbic system.
Fornix
A fiber pathway connecting the hippocampus and mammillary bodies that is often included in the limbic system.
Gyrus/ Gyri
One of the "hills" on the convoluted surface of the cerebral cortex.
Sulcus/ Sulci
A "valley" in the convoluted surface of the cerebral cortex.
Fissure
A large sulcus.
Granule Cell
A small type of cell found in layers II and IV of the cerebral cortex.
Pyramidal Cell
A large, triangular cell found in layers III and V of the cerebral cortex.
Lobe
One of the four major areas of the cerebral cortex: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital.
Frontal Lobe
The most rostral lobe of the cerebral cortex, separated from the parietal lobe by the central sulcus and from the temporal lobe by the lateral sulcus.
Central Sulcus
The fissure separating the frontal and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex.
Parietal Lobe
One of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex; located between the frontal and occipital lobes.
Temporal Lobe
The lobe of the cerebral cortex lying ventral and lateral to the frontal and parietal lobes and rostral to the occipital lobe.
Lateral Sulcus
The fissure separating the temporal and frontal lobes of the cortex.
Occipital Lobe
The most caudal lobe of the cortex; location of primary visual cortex.
Longitudinal Fissure
The major fissure dividing the two cerebral hemispheres on the dorsal side of the brain.
Sensory Cortex
An area of the cortex that is devoted to the processing of sensory information.
Primary Visual Cortex
An area of the sensory cortex located within the occipital lobe that provides the initial cortical processing of visual information.
Primary Auditory Cortex
An area of the sensory cortex located within the temporal lobe that provides the initial cortical processing of sound information.
Postcentral Gyrus
The fold of parietal lobe tissue just caudal to the central sulcus; the location of the primary somatosensory cortex.
Primary Somatosensory Cortex
An area of the sensory cortex located within the parietal lobe that provides the highest level of processing for body sense such as touch, position, temperature, and pain.
Primary Motor Cortex
An area of the cortex located within the frontal lobe that provides the highest level of command to the motor systems.
Precentral Gyrus
The fold of frontal lobe tissue just rostral to the central sulcus; the location of the primary motor cortex.
Association Cortex
Areas of the cortex that link and integrate sensory and motor information.
Corpus Callosum
A wide band of axons connecting the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
Anterior Commissure
A small bundle of axons that connects structures in the right and left cerebral hemispheres.
Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
An area located at the top and sides of the frontal lobe that participates in executive functions such as attention and the planning of behavior.
Orbitofrontal Cortex
An area of the frontal lobe located just behind the eyes involved in impulse control; damage to this area can produce some antisocial behavior.
Frontal Lobotomy
A surgical procedure in which a large portion of the frontal lobe is separated from the rest of the brain.
Broca's Area
An area near the primary motor cortex in the frontal lobe that participates in speech production.
Somatic Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system division that brings sensory input to the brain and spinal cord and returns commands to the muscles.
Autonomic Nervous System
The division of the peripheral nervous system that directs the activity of the glands, organs, and smooth muscles of the body.
Cranial Nerves
Twelve pairs of nerves that exit the brain as part of the peripheral nervous system.
Olfactory Nerve (I)
A cranial nerve carrying information about smell to the brain.
Optic Nerve (II)
A cranial nerve carrying information from the eyes to the brain.
Auditory Nerve (VIII)
The cranial nerve that carries information from the inner ear to the brain.
Oculomotor Nerve (III)
A cranial nerve that controls muscles of the eye.
Trochlear Nerve (IV)
A cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the eye.
Abducens Nerve (VI)
A cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the eye.
Spinal Accessory Nerve (XI)
A cranial nerve that controls the muscles of the neck.
Hypoglossal Nerve(XII)
A cranial nerve responsible for movement of the tongue.
Trigeminal Nerve (V)
A cranial nerve that controls chewing movements and provides feedback regarding facial expression.
Facial Nerve (VII)
A cranial nerve that produces muscle movement in facial expressions and that carries taste information back to the brain.
Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)
A cranial nerve that manages both sensory and motor functions in the throat.
Vagus Nerve (X)
A cranial nerve that serves the heart, liver, and digestive tract.
Mixed Nerves
Spinal nerves that carry both sensory and motor information.
Afferent Nerve
A nerve that carries sensory information to the CNS.
Efferent Nerve
A nerve that carries motor commands away from the CNS.
Spinal Ganglion
A collection of cell bodies of afferent nerves located just outside the spinal cord.
Biofeedback
A set of techniques that enable people to control typically unconscious or involuntary functions such as blood pressure.
Sympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system that coordinates arousal.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
The division of the autonomic nervous system responsible for rest and energy storage.
Sympathetic Chain
A string of cell bodies outside the spinal cord that receive input from sympathetic neurons in the central nervous system and that communicate with target organs.