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101 Cards in this Set

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Suspects, without sufficient basis, others are harming/exploiting or deceiving:
Paranoid; cluster A
Preoccupied with doubts about loyalty, trustworthiness of friends or associates:
Paranoid; cluster A
Reluctant to confide in others - fear info will be used against them:
Paranoid; cluster A
Reads hidden meanings/threats into benign remarks or events:
Paranoid; cluster A
Persistently bears grudges:
Paranoid; cluster A
Perceives attacks on character, not apparent to others; quick to react angrily:
Paranoid; cluster A
Recurrent, unfounded suspicions of spouse infidelity:
Paranoid; cluster A
Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice

Pharmacotherapy is mainly used for agitation or anxiety
Benzodiazepines
Possibly an antipsychotic in small dosages for short periods of time

Long term prognosis is not really known, but appears to have adaptive capacities
Paranoid; cluster A
Pervasive distrust and suspiciousness of others; Refuse responsibility for their feelings and assign responsibility to others; Often hostile, angry, and irritable; An inability to relax, muscular tension, and a need to scan the environment for clues ; Manner is humorless and serious; Their speech is goal directed and logical in their arguments;
Paranoid; cluster A
Pervasive social detachment, restricted emotional expression in interpersonal settings; Rarely tolerates eye contact; Speech is goal-directed, but give short answers to questions and avoid spontaneous conversation; Proverb interpretation is abstract;
Schizoid; cluster A
Neither desires nor enjoys close relationships:
Schizoid; cluster A
Solitary, loner:
Schizoid; cluster A
Little interest in sex with people:
Schizoid; cluster A
Takes pleasure in few, if any, activities:
Schizoid; cluster A
No close friends/confidants:
Schizoid; cluster A
Indifferent to praise or criticism:
Schizoid; cluster A
Emotionally cold, flat, or detached:
Schizoid; cluster A
Little is known about treatment

No effective pharmacologic agent

Some cases, family intervention may be helpful

Group therapy

Use of antipsychotics, antidepressants helpful

Any kind of forced intimacy may cause a breakdown in these patients
Prognosis is poor
Schizoid; cluster A
Pervasive social and interpersonal deficits marked by acute discomfort with, and limited capacity for, close relationships; Cognitive or perceptual distortions and eccentricities of behavior;
Schizotypal; cluster A
Ideas of reference (not delusional):
Schizotypal; cluster A
Odd beliefs, magical thinking that's inconsistent with cultural norms: (superstition, ESP, fantasies)
Schizotypal; cluster A
Unusual perceptual experiences, illusions:
Schizotypal; cluster A
Odd thinking and speech (vague, circumstantial, metaphorical, stereotyped)
Schizotypal; cluster A
Suspiciosness or paranoid ideation:
Schizotypal; cluster A
Inappropriate or constricted affect:
Schizotypal; cluster A
Odd, eccentric, or peculiar behavior:
Schizotypal; cluster A
Lack of close friends or confidants:
Schizotypal and schizoid; cluster A
Excessive social anxiety - mostly due to paranoid fears, not self doubt:
Schizotypal; cluster A
Does not occur during course of schizophrenia, mood disorder with psychotic features, another psychotic disorder or a pervasive developmental disorder
Schizotypal; cluster A
Frank thought disorder is absent but speech may be distinctive or peculiar

May show features of borderline personality

Under stress they can decompensate and have psychotic symptoms, generally brief

Current thinking is that the schizotype is the premorbid personality of the patient with schizophrenia

One long term study showed that 10% of schizotypal PDs committed suicide

Low dose neuroleptics or antipsychotics. Positive results with Haldol

Antidepressants can be used as indicated

Group therapy
Schizotypal; cluster A
Pervasive disregard for and violation of rights of others occurring since age 15 years; Poor job performance, academic failure, illegal activities, impulsive behavior, reckless; Antisocial patients can fool even the most experienced clinicians, appear composed and credible, but beneath the veneer there is tension, hostility, irritability and rage; Exhibit no anxiety or depression, although suicide threats and somatic preoccupations may be common; Lack of remorse, appear to lack a conscience; manipulative and will attempt to split staff if an inpatient to benefit their own needs.
Antisocial; cluster B
Repeated criminal activity - failure to conform to social norms of lawful behavior:
Antisocial; cluster B
Deceitful, lying, use of aliasis, conning of others for personal profit or pleasure:
Antisocial; cluster B
Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead:
Antisocial; cluster B
Irritability and aggressiveness manifested in repeated fights or assaults:
Antisocial; cluster B
Reckless disregard for safety of self or others:
Antisocial; cluster B
Consistent irresponsibility in work or financial obligations:
Antisocial; cluster B
Lack of remorse, indifference to suffering of others:
Antisocial; cluster B
The individual is at least age 18
Evidence of conduct disorder with onset before age 15
If in a hospital setting, this personality will comply with psychotherapy

Self help groups are useful

Since patients are usually substance abusers, pharmacotherapy must be used judiciously

Anti-epileptic drugs (valproate) have been tried to control impulsive behavior
Antisocial; cluster B
Pervasive instability of interpersonal relationships, self-image, and affects; Marked impulsivity; Considered to be borderline between neurosis and psychosis; Increased prevalence of major depressive disorder, alcohol use disorders and substance abuse in first-degree relatives of persons with borderline personality;
More males are antisocial
More females are borderline
Borderline; Cluster B
More males are antisocial
More females are ________:
Borderline; Cluster B
May do cutting behavior, cig burning because physical pain overrides the mental anguish
Borderline; Cluster B
Frantic efforts to avoid real or imagined abandonment
Borderline; Cluster B
Unstable and intense interpersonal relationships: alternate between extremes of idealizing and devaluing people
Borderline; Cluster B
Identity disturbance- unstable self image
Borderline; Cluster B
Impulsivity in at least 2, potentially self-damaging areas:
Spending, Sex, Substance abuse, reckless driving, binge eating
Borderline; Cluster B
Recurrent suicidal ideation, gestures, threats or self mutilation
Borderline; Cluster B
Affective instability- marked mood reactivity
Borderline; Cluster B
Chronic feelings of emptiness
Borderline; Cluster B
Inappropriate, intense anger or difficulty controlling anger
Borderline; Cluster B
Transient, stress-related paranoid ideation or severe dissociative symptoms
Borderline; Cluster B
Cannot tolerate being alone and will frantically search for companionship no matter how unsatisfactory

See people as either all good or all bad

Leads to frequent shifts of allegiance

High incidence of MDD (multiplex developmental disorder)
Borderline; Cluster B
Psychotherapy has been the treatment of choice

Best results, add meds
Antipsychotics for anger, hostility, brief psychotic episodes
Antidepressants
MAOIs for impulsive behavior
Benzodiazepines for anxiety or depression
Anticonvulsants may help with global functioning
Borderline; Cluster B
Pervasive pattern of excessive emotionality and attention seeking; Creative and imaginative; Play hunches rather than thinking things out; Draw attention to themselves; Control others; Substance abuse disorders are common; Association with somatization disorders; Need for reassurance is endless; Treatment - Meds don’t really work-possibly MAOIs; Long term therapy;
Histrionic: Cluster B
Discomfort with not being center of attention
Histrionic; Cluster B
Often inappropriate sexual seductiveness or provocative behavior
Histrionic; Cluster B
Labile/shallow expression of emotions
Histrionic; Cluster B
Uses appearance to draw attention to self
Histrionic; Cluster B
Speech- impressionistic, lacking in detail
Histrionic; Cluster B
Melodramatic, theatrical, exaggerated emotional reactivity
Histrionic; Cluster B
Highly suggestible
Histrionic; Cluster B
Sees relationships as more intimate than they actually are
Histrionic; Cluster B
Pervasive grandiosity, need for admiration, and lack of empathy; Depression is common due to fragile self-esteem; Brief reactive psychoses; Lying to oneself by distorting the facts so they feel important; Treatment - Meds do not really help; Psychoanalytic therapy (controversial); Rarely seek treatment since they feel they do not need to change;
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Grandiose sense of self importance
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Fantasies of unlimited success, power, beauty, love, brilliance
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Belief that he/she is “special” and unique- can only be understood by, and should only associate with similarly elite individuals
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Requires excessive admiration
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Sense of entitlement; deserving of special treatment
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Interpersonally exploitative
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Lacks empathy
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Often envious of others or believes that others are envious of him/her
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Arrogant, haughty
Narcissistic; Cluster B
Pervasive social inhibition, preoccupation with inadequacy, hypersensitivity to criticism; Many can function in a protected environment; Some marry, have children and live lives surrounded only by family members; If support system fails are subject to depression, anxiety and anger
Avoidant; Cluster C
Avoids interpersonal contact for fear of criticism or rejection
Avoidant; Cluster C
Avoids interpersonal relationships unless certain of being liked
Avoidant; Cluster C
Restraint with intimacy for fear of shame or ridicule
Avoidant; Cluster C
Preoccupation with criticism or rejection in social situations
Avoidant; Cluster C
Inhibition in new interpersonal situations
Avoidant; Cluster C
Self image: socially inept, unappealing or inferior
Avoidant; Cluster C
Avoids personal risks, new activities for fear of embarrassment
Avoidant; Cluster C
Psychoanalytic therapy

Assertiveness training

Group therapy

SSRIs, MAOIs, and beta blockers for social phobias
Tend to abandon treatment abruptly
Avoidant; Cluster C
Excessive need to be taken care of leading to submissive, clinging behaviors and fear of separation; Risk major depression if they lose the person they depend on;
Dependent; Cluster C
Trouble with everyday decisions- need for excessive advice, reassurance
Dependent; Cluster C
Needs others to assume responsibility for most major areas of his/her life
Dependent; Cluster C
Difficulty disagreeing with others for fear of losing approval or support
Dependent; Cluster C
Difficulty initiating projects, doing things independently due to low self-confidence
Dependent; Cluster C
Goes to excessive lengths to obtain nurturance and support from others (ex. Volunteering for unpleasant things)
Dependent; Cluster C
Uncomfortable, helpless when alone due to exaggerated self-doubt
Dependent; Cluster C
Urgently seeks another relationship when close relationship ends
Dependent; Cluster C
Unrealistic fears of being left to care for self
Dependent; Cluster C
Anxiolytic meds given during crisis

Group therapy

Assertiveness training
Dependent; Cluster C
Those who are suffering from ________ do not generally feel the need to repeatedly perform ritualistic actions, a common symptom of OCD. Instead, people with ________ tend to stress perfectionism above all else, and feel anxious when they perceive that things are not "right".
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Preoccupation with rules, lists, details, order- “can’t see forest from the trees”
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Perfectionism interferes with task completion
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Excessive devotion to work and productivity to the exclusion of leisure and social interactions
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Over conscientious, scrupulous and inflexible on matters of morality, ethics or values
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Excessive hoarding of worthless items
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Reluctance to delegate or work with others
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Miserly spending style
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Rigidity and stubbornness
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C
Clonazepam (Klonopin) reduces symptoms in severe obsessive compulsive personality

Clomipramine (anafranil) and prozac may help

Group therapy is difficult
Obsesive-Compulsive personality disorder; Cluster C