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39 Cards in this Set

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Who is Charles Darwin?
British naturalist and founder of the theory of evolution by means of natural selection, as described in his book On the Origins of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). He also described the process of sexual selection in his book The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex (1871) and the importance of comparative studies in the field of animal communication in his book The Expressions of Emotions in Man and Animals (1872).
Who is Karl von Frisch?
Austrian physiologist and ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in 1973, along with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. He studied the senses of bees, identified their mechanisms of communication and showed their sensitivity to ultraviolet and polarized light. In the center of his work were the study of the sensory perceptions (gestalt) of the honeybee and the way of the communication of these animals among themselves. He was one of the first who translated the meaning of the waggle dance.
Who wrote the Origin of species?
Charles Darwin
Who was the first to translate the meaning of the waggle dance in honey bees?
Karl von Frisch
What are sensory perceptions called?
gestalt
Who is William D. Hamilton?
British evolutionary biologist, considered one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. Hamilton became famous for his theoretical work expounding a rigorous genetic basis for the existence of kin selection. This insight was a key part of the development of a gene-centric view of evolution, and he can therefore be seen as one of the forerunners of the discipline of sociobiology. He also published important work on sex ratios and the evolution of sex.
What is an instinct?
A behavior pattern that reliably develops in most individuals, promoting a function response to a releaser stimulus the first time the action is performed (Alcock). Instincts were whole patterns of behavior such as drinking, eating, fighting, courting, literally “driven from within” (Lorenz).
What is a fixed action pattern?
An innate, highly stereotyped response that is triggered by a well-defined, simple stimulus; once the pattern is activated, the response is performed in its entirety (Alcock).
What is a sign stimulus?
The effective component of an action or object that triggers a fixed action pattern in an animal (Alcock).
What is innate releasing mechanism?
“A special (hypothetical) neurosensory mechanism that releases the reaction and is responsible for its selective susceptibility to a very special combination of sign stimuli” (Tinbergen).
What is imprinting?
A form of learning in which individuals exposed to certain key stimuli, usually early in life, form an association with the object and may later show sexual behavior toward similar objects (Alcock).
What is an ethogram?
A precise descriptive catalog of all postures and patterns of movement an animal (species) might make in any natural context.
What is Morgan's Canon?
: "In no case may we interpret an action as the outcome of the exercise of a higher mental faculty, if it can be interpreted as the exercise of one which stands lower in the psychological scale" (Morgan).
What is behaviorism?
subdiscipline of psychology that studied the sum total of an animal’s responses, reactions, or adjustments to local stimuli and how past events affect future behavior (Watson).
What is Tabla Rasa?
Literally, a “blank slate” or state of the mind of an organism at birth under the theory of behaviorism.
What is classical conditioning?
Associative learning where the pairing of a conditioned and unconditioned stimulus to produce a unconditioned response can lead to a conditioned response in the presence of the unconditioned stimulus alone.
What is operant conditioning?q
A kind of learning based on trial and error, in which an action or operant becomes more frequently performed if it is rewarded (Alcock).
What is natural selection?
Also direct selection. The process that occurs when individuals differ in their traits and the differences are correlated with differences in reproductive success. Natural selection can produce evolutionary change when these differences are inherited (Alcock).
What is aritificial selection?
A process that is identical with natural selection, except that humans control the reproductive success of alternative types within the selected population (Alcock).
What is heritability?
The degree of genetic transmission of a trait from parents to offspring.
What is a phenotype?
measurable aspect of an individual that arises from an interaction of the individual’s genes with its environment (Alcock).
What is a genotype?q
: The genetic constitution of an individual; may refer to the alleles of one gene possessed by the individual or to its complete set of genes (Alcock).
What is fitness?
: A measure of the genes contributed to the next generation by an individual, often stated in terms of the number of surviving offspring produced by the individual. Direct fitness is the genes contributed by an individual via personal reproduction in the bodies of surviving offspring.
What is an adaptation?
A characteristic that confers higher inclusive fitness to individuals than any other existing alternative exhibited by other individuals with the population; a trait that has spread or is spreading or is being maintained in a population as a result of natural selection (Alcock).
What is inclusive fitness?
The sum of an individual’s direct and indirect fitness; indirect fitness is the genes contributed by an individual indirectly by helping non-descendent kin, in effect creating relatives that would not have existed with the help of the individual (Alcock).
What is inclusive fitness?
The sum of an individual’s direct and indirect fitness; indirect fitness is the genes contributed by an individual indirectly by helping non-descendent kin, in effect creating relatives that would not have existed with the help of the individual (Alcock).
What is sexual selection?
A form of natural selection that occurs when individuals vary in their ability to compete with others for mates or to attract members of the opposite sex. As with natural selection, when the variation among individuals is correlated with genetic differences, sexual selection leads to genetic changes (evolution) in the population (Alcock).
What is intersexual selection?
A form of sexual selection where individuals of the limiting sex (usually females) selects particular mates of the opposite sex (usually males); this special case is called female-choice.
What is intrasexual selection?
A form of sexual selection where individuals of the non-limiting sex (usually males) compete directly for access to the limiting sex (usually females); this special case is called male-male competition.
What is kin selection?
The process that occurs when individuals differ in ways that affect their parental care or helping behavior, and thus the survival of their own offspring, or the survival of nondescendant kin (Alcock).
What is group selection?
process that occurs when individuals differ in their collective attributes and the differences affect the survival chances of the groups (Alcock).
What is evolution?q
A change in gene frequency (proportions) in a population over generations. These changes may be due to selection (natural, sexual, kin) or by chance events (genetic drift, gene flow, mutation).
What is proximate causation?
immediate, underlying cause based on the operation of internal mechanisms possessed by the individual; or how a behavior occurs (Alcock).
What is ultimate causation?
: The evolutionary, historical reason why something is the way it is; or why a behavior occurs (Alcock).
What is the hypothetico-deductive method?
A formal, stepwise rules of investigation. From an observation develop an explanatory hypothesis, then devise and conduct an experiment capable of falsifying the hypothesis. A hypothesis that is not experimentally falsified is inferred (but not proven) to be correct. A hypothesis experimentally falsified is rejected (demonstrated incorrect).
What is inductive reasoning?
Deriving general conclusions from specific observations.
What is deductive reasoning?
Deriving specific predictions from general observations.
What is a phylogenetic comparative method?
A procedure for testing evolutionary hypotheses based on disciplined comparisons among species of known evolutionary relationships (Alcock).
What is anthromorphism?
Attributing human characteristics or abilities to gods, animals or objects.