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72 Cards in this Set

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What is the definition of health?
health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being
Who defined health and when?
-WHO world health organization
-adopted in 1946
-entered into force 1948
What type of changing perspectives now broaden the definition of health?
-changes in social conditions and morals, professional ethids and social institutions

-shifts in views of civil and human rights

-recognition of environmental health and ecology
What other types of changing perspectives now broaden the definition of health?
-technological changes influencing work, home and life in communities such as transportation, computing and telecommunications

-advancements in the biological, physical, quantitative, social and behavioral sciences
When did the Ottawa charter for health promotion come to be?
1986
What did the Ottawa charter for Health promotion say about health?
health is a major resource for social, economic and personal development and an important dimension of quality of life
What did the Ottawa charter for Health promotion say were factors that can favor or be harmful to health?
-political
-economic
-social
-environmental
-behavioral
-biologic factors
What did the Ottawa charter for Health promotion say are prerequisites for health/fundamental conditions and resources for health?
peace, shelter, education, food, income, a stable ecosystem, sustainable resources, social justice, epuity
What are determinants of health?
factors that interact to create circumstances and produce specific health conditions
What are the two categories that are determinants of health?
-inherited determinants
-acquired determinants
What are inherited determinants?
factors that are inborn or genetically determines
What are acquired determinants?
-factors that influence health and are obtained after birth and throughout life
-examples:infections, trauma, cultural characteristics, spiritual values
What are some more factors that affect health throughout life?
-general socioeconomic, cultural and environmental conditions
-living and working conditions
-social and community influences
-individual lifestyle factors
-age, gender, genetic factors
What is the conceptual model 1?
Mandala of health: A model of the human ecosystem
**deals with self, family, lifestyle, community, culture
What is the conceptual model 2?
-a systematic approach to health improvement
-the framework from healthy people 2010
***deals with goals, objectives
What are the determinants of health?
All interconnected
-policies and interventions
-physical environment
-social environment
-behavior, individual, biology
-access to quality care
Is oral health more than healthy teeth and the absence of disease?
yes
Is oral health integral to general health?
yes
What are some factors that can influence oral, dental and craniofacial health?
-behavioral,pshchological
-biology, physiological
-physical environment
-social environment, cultural, community factors
-economic educational
-policies and interventions
-access to quality health care and oral health care-characteriatics of intitutions and systems, practices of professionals
What does "access to oral health services" mean?
-clinical dental care
-community preventive services(like water fluoridation)
What factors affect access to oral health services?
-availability
-accessibility
-accommodation
-affordability
-acceptability
What are some individual behaviors affecting oral, dental and craniofacial health?
-diet & nutrition
-home care practices
-seeking dental care
-tobacco use
-alcohol use
-craniofacial injury control practices
-habitual grinding and clenching
What are some factors involved in periodontal disease and dental caries?
-etiologic agents
-time
-environment and behavior
-patient susceptibility
Is dental caries a multifactoral oral disease?
yes
What factors are in the epidemiology triangle?
-host factors
-environmental factors
-agent factors
What are host factors of the epidemiology triangle?
-tooth enamel-crystal and mineral structure
-saliva-flow and composition
-immunity-response to pathogens
-host-values, beliefs, behaviors
What are agent factors of the epidemiology triangle?
-bacterial biofilm
-specific bacteria-streptococcus mutans and lactobacillus
-other bacteria
What are environmental factors of the epidemiology triangle?
-plaque
-enzymes
-minerals
-bacterial substrate-fermentable CHO
-protective factors-fluorids
-socioeconomic factors
-community norms and cultural factors
-family & social support networks
How do the cultural factors ethnicity, symbolism, tradition influence dietary intake?
cultural identities with food, special celebrations
How does the cultural factor religion influence dietary intake?
religious groups retain food practices
How does the cultural factor family influence dietary intake?
parents pass on food likes and dislikes, family traditions
How does the cultural factor social status influence dietary intake?
social connotations, food gifts
How does the cultural factor geography influence dietary intake?
food habit patterns between countries and within countries, local seasonal variations
How does the cultural factor education influence dietary intake?
eating habits influenced by peers, mass communication
How does the cultural factor economic factors influence dietary intake?
food prices and financial considerations tied to types and amounts
How does the cultural factor current trends influence dietary intake?
"fast" food out or prepared food
How does the psychological factor emotion influence dietary intake?
food is used to soothe distress or discomfort
How does the psychological factor associations with past experiences influence dietary intake?
avoid food tied to unpleasant incidents or gravitatie to foods ties to pleasant situations
How does the psychological factor reward and punishment influence dietary intake?
food is used as incentives or manipulate behavior
What type of physiological factor health conditions influence dietary intake?
diabetes, heart disease, allergies
What about the sences physiological factor influences dietary intake?
food appearance, color, consistency and odor
What are general factors that affect dietary intake?
What do these factors lead to?
-individuals,food,environment
-preferences/contraints,food choice, and food consumption
What is the guide to community preventive services handbook for?
a logic framework illustrating a conceptual approach to nutrition and community health
What is the focus of prevention concerning environmental influences?
-sociocultural environment
-physical environment
What is the focus of prevention concerning risk behaviors?
-tobacco use
-alcohol abuse
-other substance abuse
-poor nutrition
-inadequate physicala activity
-unhealthy sexual behaviors
What is the focus of prevention concerning specific conditions?
-vaccine preventable disease
-pregnancy outcomes
-violence
-motor vehicle injuries
-depression
-cancer
-diabetes
-oral health
What is the definition of health promotion?
Any planned combination of education, politaical, regulatory and organizational supports for action and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups or communities
Is health education an importent part of health promotion?
yes
What all is involved in health promotion?
-advocacy
-efforts to change organizations, policies and environments
-political considerations
-ethical responsibilities
What actions can focus on health promotion suggested by the ottawa charter for health promotion?
-building healthy public policy
-creating supportive environments
-strengthening community actions
-developing personal skills
-reorienting health services
What is the definition of health promotion?
this is a broad concept that refers to the process of enabling people and communities to increase their control over the determinants of health and to improve their own health
What are community health promotion activities and programs that address health problems in populations?
-creating a healthy environment
-reducing risk factors
-informing target groups
-improving knowledge and behaviors
What is the definition of oral health promotion?
any planned combination of education, political, regulatory and organizational supports for action and conditions of living conducive to the oral health or individuals, groups, or communities
Is oral health education an important part of oral health promotion?
yes
What are some examples of oral health promotion?
-programs that encourage people of all ages to stop using tobacco
-regulations requiring the use of mouthguards in contact sports
-laws prohibit tobacco sales to minors
-labels that indicate the amount of sugar in a food product
What is the definition of health education?
any planned combination of learning experiences designed to predispose, enable, or reinforce voluntary behavior conducive to health in individuals, groups, or communities
What is the definition of oral health education?
any planned combination of learning experiences designed to predispose, enable or reinforce voluntary behavior conducive to oral health in individuals, groups or communities
What are examples of oral health education?
-health education program to prevent tobacco use among youth as a component of a coordinated school health program
What are examples of oral health education?
-community wide health education interventions to promote use of dental sealants by directing education strategies to the public in the community, dental practitioners, health professionals, policy makers, perents and individuals
What is an example of oral health education?
patient education with a patient that enhances dietary habits to prevent dental caries
What are various settings for oral health promotion and oral health education?
-clinical health care settings
-government agencies
-volunntary health organizations
-health systems and hospitals
-health insurers
-worksite and employee health programs
-school health- preschool/highschool
-college and university students health programs
-professional organizations
-community organizations
-media organizations
Who can provide and support effoerts that can make a difference through oral health promotion and oral disease prevention?
-clinical practitioner
-program adminstrator
-advisor
-advocate
-volunteer
-in the private, public and non-profit sectors
What is the definition of a theory?
a set of interrelated concepts, definitions and propositions that present a systematic view of events or situations by specifying relations among variables, in order to explain and predict the events or situations
***this is sometimes called the conceptuaal framework or model
When does an abstract theory come to life?
only when it is applied to specific topics and problems
For planning health promotion efforts, is it important to classify and explain the multitude of factors that influence health?
yes
In an effort to promote health and prevent disease, what do theories do?
help to analyze and interpret health problems and then to plan and evaluate interventions
What different specific levels are theories for health promotion practice focused at?
-individual/intrapersonal
-interpersonal between people
-community including institiutional or arganizational change as well as public policy
-multiple levels including community, interpersonal & individual levels
What type of theories are implemented at the community level?
****institutional change, organizational change and public policy change
-community organization theory
-stage theory of organizational change
-diffusion of innovations theory
What type of theories are implemented at the interpersonal level?
**between people
-social learning theroy (also called the social cognitive theory)
What type of theories are implemented at the individual level?
***intrapersonal-within the individual
-stages of change theory (also called the transtheoretical model)
-health belief model
What type of theories are implemented at multiple levels?****community,interpersonal and individual levels
-ecological model
What are some characteristics of the ecological approach theory?
-influence environments and behaviors at multiple levels
-consist of multiple components and targets of changes
-achieve synergistic effects on behaviors, practices and outcomes