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49 Cards in this Set

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observational case studies
case-control
cohort
cross-sectional study
retrospective study
case-control
prospective study
cohort
odds of having disease in exposed group/ odds of having disease in unexposed group
odds ratio
percentage with disease of exposed group/ percentage with disease of unexposed group
relative risk
compare of group of people with disease to a group without
case-control study
compare a group with a given risk factor to a group without, to assess whether the risk factor increases the likelihood of disease
cohort study
"pt. with COPD had a higher odds of a history of smoking than those without COPD"
odds ratio
"smokers had a higher risk of developing COPD than did nonsmokers"
relative risk
measures disease prevalence
cross-sectional study
collect data from a group of people to assess frequency of disease (and RR factors) at a particular point in time
cross-sectional study
total cases in population at a given time/ total population at risk
prevalence
study that measures heritability
twin concordance study
study that measures heritability and influence of environmental factors
adoption study
experimental study that compares the therapeutic benefits of 2 or more treatments, or treatment and placebo
clinical trial
phase of clinical trial with a small # of patients, uuually volunteers
phase I
assess safety, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics
phase I
study sample with small number of patients with disease of interest
phase II
assess treatment efficacy, optimal dose, and adverse effects
phase II
study sample is a large number of patients randomly assigned to either tx under investigation or best available treatment
phase III
compares new tx to current standard of care
phase III
pools evidence from several studies to achieve greater statistical power
meta-analysis
new cases in population over a given period of time/total population at risk during that time
incidence
prevalance > incidence
chronic disease -
w/ incidence, people previously positive for a disease are no longer considered at risk
prevelance = incidence
acute disease
high value desirable to rule out disease
sensitivity
percent of people with disease who test positive
sensitivity
a/ (a+c) or
1 - (false negatives)
sensitivity
desirable for ruling out disease
high sensitivity value and low false-negative rate
percentage of people without disease who test negative
specificity
desirable in ruling in disease
high specificity -
low false positive
1 - % false positives
specificity
% of positive test results that are true-positive
PPV - positive predictive value
% of negative test results that are true-negative
NPV - negative predictive value
probability that person actually has the disease given a poitive test result
PPV
probability that person actually is disease free given a negative test result
NPV
X AXIS on evaluation of diagnostic test
test results
always y axis on 2X2
disease
X axis on odds ratio vs. relative risk
risk factor
odcds of having disease in exposed group/ odds of having disease in unexposed group
odds ratio for case control study
approximates relative risk if prevalence of disease is not too high
odds ratio for case control study
difference in risk between exposed and unexposed groups
attributable risk
% of disease occurrences that are a result of the exposure
attributable risk
consistency and reproducibility of a test
precision
absence of random variation of a test
precision
trueness of test measurements
accuracy
= validity of a test
accuracy
reduced precision in a test
random error
reduced accuracy in a test
systemic error