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172 Cards in this Set

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Misconceptions of behavior and biology
~one on one relationship between genes and behavior- gene code
~ if something has biological basis, it cant be changed- behavior is easier to change if it is understood
~if something is natural or biological then it is right or justified- naturalistc fallacy
Main effect Model
behaviro is influenced by either culture or biology
- too simple
Interaction Model
where something is on the line betewen culture and biology
Transactional Model
Where behavior is ont he lin between culture and biology but it is always changing
proxomite
explanations of how something happens- physiology
ultimate
explantions of why something happens- evolution, adaptation
Gibbon
Monogamous
Sexes similar in size
No estrus
Female kin affiliation
Orangutan
Opporunistic male comp.
Males 2x big
No estrus swelling
Female Kin affiliation
Gorilla
polygynous male comp.
males 2x big
slight estrus swelling
some female affiliation
Chimp
multi-male/multi- female
males 1/4x
large estrus swelling
some femalie affiliation
Bonobo
multi-male/multi-female
males 1/4 x
large estrus swelling
High female affiliation
Human
In between monogamy and polygamy
males almost 1/4 x
no swelling
some affiliation (?)
apes
birth at later age
longer gestation period
long periods between births
invest many years in offspring
humans
division of labor
share food- many different food chains
preservation of food
extended juvenile period but shor inter-birth intervals
EEA (environment of evolutionary adaptedness)
~conditions under which particular patterns of behavior and biology evovled
~prime mover: what compells us to evolve
Models of Human Evolution
analog: living traditional societies
prime mover
what
Man the Humnter
-most common model
-prime mover: hunting/male cooperation
-complex decisions made by hunters led to a larger brain
-males prodided meat
-tools, division of labor, cooperation
-applied to Homo and Australapithecines
-hunting improtant in many societies
-hunting might not explain large brain development-other animals
-model ignores women
Woman the Gatherer
-prime mover: female gatherers
-memeory for gathering led to larger brain
-female provided for family
-applied primarily to Homo
-central place for foraging
-tools
-acknowledges women but not men
-both sexes gained larger brains
Man the Provisioner
-prime mover: males/hunting
-bipedalism
-male provisioning of family
-home base
-monogamy
-applied to australopithecines
-importance of uveniles and reudction in birth spacing
-emphasize pair bonding but australopithencines were polygynous
- women provided too
Body Guard Hypothesis
-analog:non-human primates
-prime mover: protection from sexual coercion
-why females would bond with a certain male
Theft Hypothesis
-prime mover:females provided males with roots in exchange for protection from food theft & cooking and fire
-male-female bonds
-lack of estrus
-reduced sexual dimorphism
Juvenile Development Hypothesis
-analog: non-human primates
-prime mover: extension of juvenile period
-what comples us to develop required coordinated care
-provides overlapping of nutrionally dependent children
-male-female bonds to care for dependent children
Trouble with sex
cost of meiosis
cost of recombination
cost of mating
cost of Meiosis
can only pass on 1/2 of genes to offspring

if asexual- 100% genes
cost of recombination
-must combin male and female genomes without major mistakes
-breaking up good combo
cost of mating
-energy spent on finding and competing for mates
-vulnerability to predatio during mating
- STDs
Why sex?
-gets rid of harmful mutations
-allows for beneficial recombination
Fisher Muller: "Ratchet Hypothesis"
-sex brings thogher and purges those with 'bad' mutations
-offspring with good genes suervuvie
-asex cant get ride of mutations
-higher mutation rate, greater advantage of sex
-problems: selection happens at the level of the individual and not the species-mutation based on individual and not the species
Williams: "Lottery Hypothesis"
-in unstable environments do not want multiple copies of the same "ticket"
-better to have more variablitly and have more chance of survival
-problem:sexual organisms mroe common in stable environments
Graham Bell: "Tangled Bank Hypothesis"
sex avoids specialization
W.D. Hamilton: "Red Queen Hypotheis"
-stay one step ahead of parasites
-sex allows to be step ahead of parasite-adapt to host
-better to stay one step ahead of predator
Sex Chromosomes
lead to regularor genes and prenatial hormones- leads to gonadal sex & phenotypic sex
genital folds
scrotum or labia
genital tubercle
clitoris or penis
Undifferentiated stage of males
realsease hormones that release MIS
MIS (mullerian inhibiting substance)
-disintegrates Mullerian duct
-promotes testosterone
SRY (sex determining region of the y chromosome) gene
-part of the TDF- (testes determining factor) gene complex
-triggers testes to develop
Wnt-7a gene
destroys mullerian duct
DHT
-testosterone converted to this
-develpment of external male genitalia
Wolffian Duct
PEVS

prostate gland, epidydimous, vas deferens, seminal vesicle
Dax-1 Gene
helps regulate female development
Wnt-4 Gene
-essential for female development
-prevents production of testosterone
-intiates development of Mullerian duct
-necessary for proper oocycte development
-supresses wolffian duct
Wnt-7a gene (female)
development of uterus
Mullerian Duct
FUC
fallopian tubes
uterus
cervix
sex differences
-societal/cultural influences (proximate)
-physiological mechanism (proximate)
-evolutionary influences (ultimate)
spatial ability
higher with higher T
- helps men navigate larger ranges
-division of labor
-mating strategy
-helped with hunting
confidence
increased with T
object location
-importance of remebering plant locations
-benefit of reduced mobility
-helped with gathering
evolutionary explanations of sex differences
-men=spatial ability
-women=object location
-over time males and females who behaved in certain ways were favored by natural selection
Investment from males
-small gametes
-paternal investmanet variable
Investment from females
-large gametes
-internal gestation
-lactation
-lengthy parental investment
natural selection
-varation in trait
-trait=inheritable
-differential reproductive sucess
Reproductive sucess
successfully leaving more copies of your gnes in subsequent generations than do other indivuiudals
Inter-Sexual Choice (female Choice)
-one sex choosing to mate with memeber of opposite sex
-possession of good genes (sexy son hypo & handicap principle) and investment in offspring
-good genes: low pathogen load and sperm quality
-coosy because reproductive ability and resources/territory
When not choosy for mates
-male: when there is no limit on insemination and low investment in offspring
-female: advantageous to confuse paternity
Intra-sexual competion (males competeing0
-competition among memebers of one sex for members of opposite sex
-female chocie constrained if dominant males keep other males away & if winners coant keep other males away use coercison or freely chosen by females
why compete?
-genetic quailty
-resources
-parenting ability
-reproductive ability: sperm competition and fecundity
-mates are limited: energetic/time constraints
inter-sexual coercion
-force to mate
-override the results of inter-sexual chocie and intra-sexual competition
-cost on those coerced
female strategies to avoid sexual coercion
-escape from males
-aggressive toewrds males
-coalitions with females
-association with a particular male
Ovary
-where eggs develop
- target organ: generates meature germ cells in response to hormonal control signals
- endocrine gland: sends signals of its own to uterus, hypothalamus and piuitary
Oocyte
- each immature egg is called a primary oocyte and is contained in a follicle
- dcline in oocyte as we age
- when girl is born she has all the eggs in the overy
- before birth, the oocyte goes through meiosis
Follicular Pahse
-1st half of menstration
-follical dominat structure
- LH and FSH are low ar the start of cycle
H-P-O Axis
- Hypothalamus- Pituitary- Ovarian Axis
- Low FSh stimulates Hypothamalmus to realse GnRH which signals to the interior pituitary
- anterior pituitary relases more FSH and LH
- FSH stimulates follicle to pridce estrogen (estradiol)
- cells differentiate in the follicle forming hte Graffian follicle'
- increasing amounts of estrogen are produced by the Graffian Follicles, one becomes the dominate follicel
- increase in estrogne sends a "negative feedback" signal to the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary to stop producing GnRH and FSH
- at some point increasing estrogen switches to positve feedback
- hypothamalmus secrestes meore GnRH- particualry LhRH at this point
- when a threshold amount of LhRH is reached, the anterior pituitary release a massice dose of LH
- this massive surge in LH cuases the follicle to rupture and ovulation to occur
GnRH
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
- cuases release of FSH and LH
FSH
Follicle Stimulating Hormone,
- stimilates production of estrodial
Estrodial
predominant estrogen produced by humans during menstration
Graffian Follicle
-Theca Cells
- granulosa cells
theca cells
cells on the outside
- LH stimulates theca cells to make testosterone
- some estrogen made de novo
- when egg ruptiures, theca cells come out w/ the egg and noursih it on the way to the uterus
ganulosa cells
smaller cells on the inside of the follicle
- convert testosteron into estradiol under influnce of FSH
LH
Leutenizing Hormone
-stimulates theca cells to make testosteron
coronae
surrounds eggs
- eggs cant be fertilized if theca cells is around it
the luteal phase
- empty follicle becomes the corpus luteum
- corpus luteum produces estrogen and progesterone
-estrogen and progesterone cuases changes in reproductive organs
- LH and progesterone also invovled in negative feeback loops
-progesterone initiates secretory phase in uterus
estrogen
-stimulates growth of cells in the lining of the uterus, the cervix and the vagina
- cuases breast to increase progesterone receptor density
- initiates proliferative phase in uterus
- causes changes in cervical mucous
progesterone
- builds up the lining of the uterus for fertilization
- incresed concentration in breast in luteal phase
- initiates secretory phase of endometrium
- signals the pituitary to stop producing LH
proliferative phase
- in the uterus
- estrogen initates a "proliferative phase" when glands of uterine lining thicken and grown and blood supply proliferates
secretory phase
- inside the uterus
- progestrone cuases the uterus to enter a "secretory phase" when it secretes embryo-nourishing substances
secretory phase of uterus
-endometrium is heavily vascularized
- active secretion of nutrient-rich medium for embryonic growth
- embryo can only implant in secretory lining
Changes in cervical mucous
-normally forms a maze of tangled fibers
- under influence of estrogen fibers line up permitting sperm to get through
changes in cervix
- closes soon after ovulation
changes in vagina
- vagina becomes drier with increasing progesterone
changes in the breasts
- estrogen cuases breast cells to start to divide
- estrogen increses progestorn receptors= increased
- increased tenderness
- increased nipple senistivity
What triggers menstration
-no fertilization:
~corpus luteum regresses after about 12 days
~ progesterone production dropps off sharply
~ endometrium sloughs off
menstration and mate choice
- women prefer more masculine faces during ovulation
- prefer scent of more symmetrical men at midcycle
what triggers menarche
- frisch body fat hypothesis
- tanner/ellsion: pelvic size hypothesis
frish hypothesis version 1
- average weight at menarche is 47 kg
- 47 kg is the critical weight that triggers menarche
- but graph shows no realtionship
frisch hypothesis version 2
- found critical body compositon that triggers menarche
- but assumes difference in body composition is due to fat
frisch hypothesis version 3
- few girls reach menarche beleow 17% body weight as fat
- this is a threshold
- but no evidence of increase in probablity of reaching meanrche after attain 17%
pelvic size hypothesis
- girl must reach a appropirate age of skeletal development in order to reproduce
- pelvic dimensions correlated with menstration age
- pelvic breadth of 24 cm is minimum threshold
menarcheal age and weight
weight accounts for 18% of variance in menarcheal age
skeletal growth and age of menarche
biliac diamter accounts for 50% of variance
growth spurt and menarche
menarche occurs after peak growth spurt and natural selsection has delayued menarche until pelvis can handle reprodcution without complications
androgens
- stimulates growth of nones and beginning of frwoth supiurt
- comes from adrenal gland
- androgens from adrenal gland and ovary stimiualte pubic and axillary hair development
adrenarche
intioation of androgen action
estradiol I
starts develpment pf breasts, uterus, vagina and parts of pelvis
- pelvic remodeling finsihes at the end of skeletal maturation
breast development
- occurs 1st
- enlargement of areola
- influence of estradiol and prolactin
estradiol II
- stimulates mineral deposition resulting in ossification and fusion of epiphyses
epiphyses
where bones grow
ossification
making solidifying bone
precocious puberty
- too early
- 5-6 years old
- treatable with estrogen antagonist
delayed or loss puberty
- treateable with GnRH
Harry Potter gene
- gene needed to start puberty
Gonadostat Hypothesis
-falling sensitvity of hypothalamus to negative feedback of steroids
- pituitary, uterus, and ovary are realdy
- just need signal from hypothalamus
Pituitary Drive Hypothesis
pituitary produces increasing FSH and LH (gonadotropins) in response to the same GnRH stimulus from hypothalamus
Gonadal Drive Hypothesis
- changes in gonad come first
- increasing amounts of steroid cause hypothalmasyu to lose sensitivity to negative feedback
development fo LH pulses
- pre-puberty: no LH pulses
- early puberty: production of LH pulses begins especially at night
- late puberty: increasing magnitude and frequency of pulses also during day
adolescent subfecundity
- capacity to have a baby
stages of puberty for females
look older then potential for reproduction
stages of puberty for males
potential for reprodcution then look older
puberty rituals
- signs of menarche
- restricted access to men
- usually marriage happens right after
human endometruim
- endometrual arterioles maternal blood to the placenta
- one artery for each placental chamber
- 'spiral areteries' require more bolld brpresusre and make more blood availabel to the embryo after implantation
- without implantion the retreat of the edometruim results in the injury to the microvasulatrue and thus menstration
Secretory phase of endomentrium
- estradiol stimulates DNA syntheis and mitotic activity
- mucosa double s in thickness
- tubular glands penetrate the stroma and become greatly enlarged
- progesterone causes enlargement of stroma cells and the expression of gens that fcode for proteins important in implantation
- estrogen primed endometiram binds progesterone which stimulates the flands to secret a rich mixture of flycoprotein, sugars and amino acids
- decidual tissue contains lipids, carbs, nbuecleic acide sadn proteins
why do we menstrate
- function/adaptive explanations: pathogen elimination hypothesis & embryo elimination hypotheis
- non-adaptive consequences: energy economy hypothesis & consequence of uterine evolution
"pathogen protection" hypothesis
- menstration evovled to protect the uterus from sperm-borne pathogens
- but there are no decrease in pathogens after menstration, menstration can cause infection, sexual activity usually occurs when menstration is absent
more pathogen protection hypotheis problems
-cervial musous prevents sperm from entering uterus
- no association in primate with numbers of mating partners
- not more widespread
energy economy hypotheis
- outer layer of endometirum is too bulky to absorb
- more costly to maintan endometruim thatn grow a new one
- higher metanolic rate during luteal phase
- external bleeding as a side effect when too much blood for re-absorption
Non-adaptive consequence of uterine evoltuion
- increased permeability of blood vessels that supply the endometrium
-differntiation of endometrial wall occurs during eveyr cycle
- blastovcy embeds in wall of endometrium
- menstration as a consequence of terminal differentiation
- necessary consequences of having invasisce blastocyst
embryo elimination hypothesis
- igh incidence of pregnacy loss
- menstration evovled a s amenas to eliminate defective embryos
- igh invstment in each offsrping, want to eliminate losses early
- mating thorughout cyccle leads to increased porbbarlity of conjugation at 'wrong' time
menstual synchrony
- isnt constitentyly found
- found on village level
mentrual taboos
- no sex
- spouses sleep apart
- cant cook for men
- exclusion from sacred palces
- cant perform ceratin labors
- probited from touching male items
-seclusion
- food and hygien restrictions/ rituals
- special dress
explanations of menstraul taboos
- funtional
- cultural/ psychological
-adaptive/evolutionary
Functional Hypothesis
-menotoxins: bacterial contaminants, idea that menstrual blood exposes a man to "urethritis-causing" bacteria which is harmful to living tissues- but no evidence of "menotoxins", little cyclical variation in vaginal bacterial flora, odesnt explain women isolation
- hunting preventing menstural odor intereference: found in non-hunting societies, women not invovled in hunting in most societies anyway, lack of evidence of menstral "odor" contamination with casual contact
Cultural/ Psychological Hypothesis
-castration anxiety: menstrual taboos reflect male 'castration anxiety' which is provoked by genital bleeding- but no reltiaon between castration anxiety and menstrual taboo
- male dominance: taboos assocsiated with male dominance- but more common in soceityes that are less male dominated
- dilemma of wife's fecundity: sends wife to mentstaul hut as a signal that he's not interested in her fecundtiy, gesture to make her available to adulterers, increased solidarity of husband's poltical power- but women cant get pregnant during period, disinterest in fecundity isnt supproted ethnographically
- soceial control: coercing poeple to respond to socail control, assert male duperiotity, adtatack a rival, lay claim to a special relation- but no evidence for male superiority and no evidnece developed to this purpose
-inducement to hut: women go on "sex strike" during menstration, induces men to hunt meat for them- but no evidnece of this
Anti-cukoldry Hypothesis
-anti-cuckoldry: reprodcutive status, and watch wife carefully
-reveals woman's menstrual statues to her mate
- makes paternity deception difficult
- but: why would be interest for women, and do you need taboo to signal menstration to mate
Energy Balance Hypothesis
-menstraul taboos always invovle decerease in women's workload
- decrease in activilty levels and workload have a positive effect on the probability of conception
- these practices may increase the probability of conception by decreasing energy expenditure and may serve an adaptice function
fecundity
capacity to bear offspring
fecund
capacity to bear offsrping but never had children
fecundatbitlity
montyly probability of conceptuon
fertility
sucessful reproduction and if had chilren
amenorrhea
long time when not cycling
Radioimmunoassay
-used to measure hormone
- sample of body fluid and have radioactive progesterone with knwon amount and mix with unknown amount of hormone
- use anitbodies and count amount of radioactivity of anitbody
- count how many antibodies binded
Enzyme immunoassay
used to measure hormone
- use enzymes instad of radioactivity
weight loss and progesterone
- women losing weight had lower progesterone
- small level of weight loss can lead to luteal supression
- signigifant effect in post-weight loss cycle
workload without nutritional stress
-women's energy balance and weight didnt change
- lower progesterone levels of women with high workloads
energy balance
net difference between eergy intake and energy expenditure
exercise with weight loss and weight maintenance
- lower hormonal functioning in women in negative energy balance
energy flux
fluctuatuion between calories taken in and calories expeneded- high flux=high intake and high expenditure
hormonal levels and menstruation
higher levels of estradiol and progesterone are associated with an increased probability of conception
cross cultural differences in cycles
-exercise and nutrion affect the probaility of conception
-woemn in industiralized societies have higher levels of ovarion hormones- may be responsible for increased risk of reproductive cancers
-hormonla levels from women in industrialized countries may not provide an accurate norm for women in other coutnries
Hormonal set poinst
-hormonal characteristics at menarche are carried later in life
-conditions of development affect the hormonal trajectory
-aboslute level of hormones needed to ovulate may differe between populations
testes
- located in scrotum
- includes semniferous tubules, epididymis, vas deferens
- gamete and hormonal production
leydig cells
- in testes
manufacture testosterone
sertoli cells
- in testes
support and nourish sperm cells
seminiferous tubules
sperm development
epididymis
- sperm storage
- become spermatoza
- develp swimming abililty
vas deferens
brings sperm to urethra
germinal epipthelium
- in seminiferous tubules
- sperm mautruation
sperm
- head: chromosomes
- acrosome (covering head): enzymes disolve egg membrane
- middle piece (of tail): mitochondria
- tail: microtubles (cilia and flagella)
seminal vesicles
base of bladder, duct joins vas deferns
prostate gland
below bladder
cowper's galnd
either side of urethra
FSH (male)
promotes spermatogenesis
LH (male)
promotes production of testosterone in intersitial cells
testosterone
- sperm maturation
- stimulates growth and development of penis and testes
- male secondary sex characteristics: axillary hiar, larynx, oil & sweat gland secretion
- threshold needed for sexual activity and libido
- role in positve "effect"
- permissive effect on aggression
- key promoter of muscle anabolism- upper body muscles
male puberty rituals
- subincision of the penis
- penile modification (shedding of blood)
- circumcision
- cnanges in clothing
- changes in hair style
- inducement of trance state
function of foreskin
- protects the glans of the penis
- shields glans and urinary opening from irritation due to feces and urine (newborn) and friciton
smegma
produced by tyson's glands of Glans
- protects the glans
-lubricates the glans during intercourse
changes with circumcision
- cornification of the glans:
~ increased thickness in outer cell layer
~ free nerve endgings disappear
~ surface cells voered with a layer of dead cells
- smega no longer produced for lubrication
- skin on penile shaft is tighter
gorilla sexuality
-mating confined to a few days aroudn ovulation
- mating female intiated
- slight sexual swelling
- females solicit mating from sulverback male
chimpanzee sexuality
- promsicous mating
-estrus chimp may copulate 30-50 x perday
-concentration of mating wiht dominate male(s) midcycle
oranguatan sexuality
- females do not show signs of ovulation
- variety of sexual behaviors and postions
- long periods of mating (3-17 min)
- froced copualtions
- mating during periods of high energy balance/ hormonal levels
Bonobo sexuality
- high degree of non-procreative sexual activity
- regualr occurence of female-female behavior
orgasm in female primates
- involved in manual stimulation, not sex
sexual inheritance
- primate females are much more activiely seuxla than previously thought
- primates engage in sex for other reasons besides procreation
- some evidence for orgasm in female primates through manual stimulation
Hormonal influence on sexual behavior
slight rise in T around time of ovulation- some studies show increase in sexual behavior (female initiated)
sexual response cycle
- excitation
- plateau
- orgasm
- resolution
how do women achieve orgasm
- 95% masturbation
- 1.5 % thru vaginal insertion alone
- little cross-cultural information
questions about female sexuality
- female orgasm adaptive
- clitoris product of natural selection
- female sexual response adaptive
intercouse and oxytocin release
-intercourse alone causes release of oxytocin
- oxytocin may increase sperm uptake
clitoridectomy
removal of the clitoris
infibulation
removal of the clitoris and part or all of the labia majora, the mons veneris and the labia minora. Surgical closure of the vaginal opening
deinfibulation
cutting open scar tissue caused by infibulation to allow for intercourse
reinfibulation
fusing the labia majora shut after childbirth