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74 Cards in this Set

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Anaclitic depression
sustained absence of mom btw 6-12mos = withdrawn and unresponsive infant
failure to thrive
Cooperative Play
4-7 yo
parallel play
2-4 yo
separation anxiety
15mos
stranger anxiety
7-9 mos
Vaginismus
spasm in outer third of vagina
difficult intercourse or pap
Result of rape, incest or abuse
Avoidant personality d/o
extreme form of social phobia - afraid of almost all social situations
cluster C
conversion d/o
development of physical sx like stomach pain or paralysis in response to psychologic conflict
Sublimation
person gets gratification of an unaccpetable impulse in a socially acceptable manner
Displacement
reaction or emotion that is triggered by one person or situation is directed twd a different person or situation

Turning pedophillic urges twd different sexual objects
Intellectualization
emotion is replaced by excessive cognitive content and detail. Cognitive content keeps the undesirable emotion out of consciousness.

Pedophile writes a long these about the origin of sexual desire
Introjection
pieces of the others around us are brought in a made a part of ourselves.
Reaction formation
when an impulse is turned to its opposite

pedophile hating children
transference
responding to ppl or situations in the present as if they were people or situations form our past
Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. One definition of transference is "the inappropriate repetition in the present of a relationship that was important in a person's childhood."[1] Another definition is "the redirection of feelings and desires and esp. of those unconsciously retained from childhood toward a new object."[2] Still another definition is "a reproduction of emotions relating to repressed experiences, esp. of childhood, and the substitution of another person . . . for the original object of the repressed impulses.
Random error
Systemic error
Random error - reduced precision
Systemic error - reduced accuracy
Sensitivity
rule out dz - screening for dz
TP / TP + FN
Specificity
rule in dz- confirms dz
TN/ TN+FP
Odds ratio
approximates relative risk = odds of having dz in exposed group divided by odds having dz in unexposed group, or dz risk in pos test vs dz risk in neg test
[a/b]/[c/d]
Real/False
TPTN / FPFN
Relative Risk
dz risk in exposed group divided by dz risk in unexposed group
[TP/TP+FP] / [FN/TN+FN)
if the presented interval falls within 1 then it is not significant relative risk
Statisitcal distribution
positive skew vs negative skew
Positive skew: tail is on right side
Mean>median>mode
Negative skew: tail is on the left
mode>median>mean
alpha - type 1 error
mistakenly rejecting the null hypothesis
stating a difference when none exists
beta - type 2 error
failing to reject the null when a difference exists
power
3 factors
(1-beta)
probability of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is in fact false.
depends on 3 things
1. Total number of end points experienced by population
2. Difference in compliance btw groups
3. Size of expected affect
std deviation vs error
95% CI
Std error of the mean = std dev/sq root of n
SEM is less than std dev
and decr as n increases.
To find a 95% CI you have mean+/- Z(SEM)
Ttest
compares means of 2 groups
ANOVA
compares the differences btw the means of 3 or more groups
analysis of variance of 3 or more variables.
chi square
checks difference btw 2 or more PERCENTAGES of proportions of categorical outcomes.
disease prevention
1'
2'
3'
1' prevent dz occurrence - vaccine
2' early detection - pap smear
3' reduce disability from dz - exogenous insulin
Exceptions to informed consent (4)
1. pt lacks the decision making capacity -not legally competant
2. medical emergency - implied consent
3. Therapeutic privilege (withholding info bc it could otherwise lead to severe harm to pt or undermine informed decision making capacity
4. Waiver -
Minor requesting abortion
parental consent required
Not required for emergencies
A child wishes to know more about their illness
find out what his parents have told him
parents decide
schizoid pd
detachment, restricted emotional expression.
like isolation
no decline in occupation fx
Schizophreniform
schizophrenia for <6mos
Borderline PD
unstable affect, behavior and image issues, intense and unstable personal relationships
SPLITTING
self mutilation
mood d/o
Schizotypal
strange, idiosyncratic to the world
unmatched clothing, odd behavior
highly eccentric
need for social isolation
extrasensory abilities
APGAR
appearance - color (blue, trunk pink, all pink)
pulse - (0, <100, >100)
grimace - reflex irritability (0, grimace, grimace + cough)
activity - muscle tone (limp, some, active)
respiration (0, irregular, regular)
infant deprivation
4 W's
weak
wordless
wanting
wary
child physical abuse

child sexual abuse
usually female primary care giver

usually familiar male
peak incidence 9-12
toilet training age
30-36 mos
imaginary friend
4yo
development of conscience
6-11
pathologic grief
excessively intense or prolonged grief or delayed grief, inhibited or denied
depressive sx
delusions
hallucinations
Kubler ross stages of dying
death arrives bringing grave adjustments
denial
anger
bargaining
guilt
acceptance
Halstead-Reitan battery
test for brain damage

can demonstrate whether or not presenting brain damage is permanent
transference
pt projects feelings about formative or other important person onto physician
Transference is a phenomenon in psychology characterized by unconscious redirection of feelings for one person to another. One definition of transference is "the inappropriate repetition in the present of a relationship that was important in a person's childhood."[1] Another definition is "the redirection of feelings and desires and esp. of those unconsciously retained from childhood toward a new object."[2] Still another definition is "a reproduction of emotions relating to repressed experiences, esp. of childhood, and the substitution of another person . . . for the original object of the repressed impulses.
ID
SUPEREGO
EGO
ID: primal urges
SUPEREGO: Moral values, conscience
EGO: mediate btw unconscious mind and external world - deals with conflict
Mature EGO defenses (4)
Altruism, humor, sublimation, suppression
Dissociation
temporary drastic change in personality, memory, consciousness
or motor behavior to avoid emotional stress
extreme form can result in multiple personalities
isolation
separation of feelings from ideas and events

emotionlessly describing a murder in graphic detail
Projection
an unacceptable internal impulse is attributed to an external source
man who wants another woman accuses wife of cheating
identification
modeling behavior after another person who is more powerful (though not necessarily admired)
abused child become abuser
displacement
process whereby avoided feelings and ideas are transferred to some neutral person or object

reaction or emotion that is triggered by one person or situation is directed twd a different person or situation
Turning pedophillic urges twd different sexual objects

after argument with a nonreceptive son doctor yells at pt
Dysthymia
milder form of depression lasting at least 2 years
Electroconvulsive therapy
tx for refractory major depressive d/o
painless, produces seizure
cyclothymic d/o
a milder form of bipolar d/o
lasting at least 2 yrs
malingering
pt consciously fakes or claims to have a d/o in order to attain a specific gain
Pseduocyesis
false belief of being pregnant ass with objective physical signs of pregnancy
Tourettes treament
haloperidol
oppositional defiant d/o
noncompliant child without criminality
Rett D/o
X linked - only in girls males die in utero
loss of development and MR appearing at 4
handwringing
asperger
mild autism with prob with social relationships and repetitive behavior
Nl IQ and lack social or cognitive deficits.
hallucination vs illusion vs delusion
hallucination: perceptions in absence of external stim
illusion: misintrepretation of actual external
delusion: false beliefs not shared by society
schizoaffective d/o
schizophrenia + affective mood d/o

lifelong social and occupational impairment.
Cluster A personality types (3)
weirdos
odd and eccentric
cannot develop meaningful relationships
genetic ass with schizophrenia
1. Schizotypal
2. Paranoid
3. schizoid
Cluster B (4)
dramatic emotional, erratic wild, genetic ass with mood d/o and substance abuse
1. antisocial
2. borderline (unstable mood, and interpersonal relationships, impulsiveness, sense of emptiness)
3. histrionic
4. narcissistic
Cluster C pd
WOrried, anxious
1. Avoidant: fearful of rejection
2. OCD
3. Dependent: submissive, clingy, excessive need to be taken care of, low self confidence
Case series study
collects detailed info about ppl who are all believed to have the same dz or condition
good for defining a dz - no controls
case control study
classifies study participant as either diseased (cases) or nondz (control) then looking back for presence or absence of suspected risk factors.
analyze using Odds Ratio (real/false)
Cohort study
classifies study participants as either having or not having a given risk factor and then follows them fwd in time to assess incidence of one or more dz cndts.
use relative risk calc
cross sectional study
assess prevalence of dz in a defined pop
Numbers of ppl with dz are first counted, then factors that are more common in the dz than the non dz are identified based on current characteristics in the study participants
Chi square analysis
Cross over study
intervention study which all study participants get the treatment tested but at different times. Idea is to leave no untreated study participants. Roles are switched at some pt.
Phase 1 clinical trial
1st seris of studies by FDA before consideration of approving a new drug for general use
Safety trieal.
what if p > 0.05
then we have accepted null
alpha error is zero
beta error is contingent.
nominal vs interval tests
Analysis of variance
chi sq
matched pairs Ttest
Pearson correlation coefficient
Pooled t test
Analysis of variance: 1 nominal (2+ groups), 1 interval
chi sq: 2 nominal
matched pairs Ttest: 1 nominal (2matched groups), 1interval
Pearson correlation coefficient: 2 intervals
Pooled t test: 1 nominal (2 groups), 1 interval