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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a predictable unfolding of stages
same as in psych dvlpt
damage to one stage will cause problems down the line
-distorts trajectory
individuals unfold at their own pace. No rigidity in time sequence
Topographic theory (Freud)
1. conscious- thoughts in waking state. at forefront
2. Preconscious- retrievable thoughts. arent in awareness
3. Unconscious- remain out of awareness. mind protects itself
-Freud that this was the difference b/w civilized and uncivilized
Structural Theory (Freud)
1. Ego-like a traffic light. navigate thru waking state
-ability to perceive and defend
2. SuperEgo- conscience we think of as guilt.
-dvlped by age 5 or 6
3. Id- 'seat of the drives'
-seat of passionate interpersonal drives like love , lust, etc
Mature Conscience
1. knowledge of right and wrong
2. capacity for guilt
3. Supportive/encouraging

People in our lives (parents, etc) that instill our sense of conscience

flexible, kindness, benevolence
Flaws in mature conscience
create depression and doubt later in life.
Too much guilt and not enough encouragement
Instinct vs Drives
Instinct- natural reflexive response to env stimuli

Drive- meant to be interpersonal. The seat of the passionate feelings you have
Tabula Rasa
Blank slate
we NO LONGER believe that infants are a blank slate
they have a lot of biolog propensities and potential
Internal Psychological World
environment interacts TREMENDOUSLY to create internal world
Psychological World
what is in a person independent of where they are
Psychosexual Development (Freud)
building blocks for adult sexuality are formed from early life experiences
Psychosexual Stages
1. Oral- first means of relatedness is through the mouth. zone of naviagation is the mouth
2. Anal- focus on toilet training
3. Phallic- kids concerned with differences b/w boys and girls. gender identity
-most have idealized views of
4. Oedipal- painful lession that you cannot be the only one. navigate jealousy, exclusion, and learn triangular relationships
learn how to form triangular relationships that lead to group relationships

ultimately decide to become like one of the parents
Ideal Development
by the time a child becomes of shchool age, they have resolved above issues and are settled enough that they can fully function in relationships and groups in school
Ultimate Challenge of childhood
going from infancy to distinct, independent person
Earliest Senses
touch, smell, taste
Toilet Training
over focus on production will lead to tantrums

focus on scheduled, relaxing time
Phallic Stage
learn about gender differences

more challenging for females because what they are proud of is less visible
Body Ego (Freud)
1st way we have sense of identity. 1st way of knowing oneself and the world


*most fundamental building block
Ego Defense
Ana Freud- Nosology of Defenses
defenses help people navigate the world.
distortion can cause problems
using only 1 type from early childhood will cause problems
Margaret Mahler
Stages of dvlpt of newborn-->infant and their independent personality

autistic phase, symbiotic phase, hatching, practicing, reproachment, and emotional constancy
Normal Autistic Phase
1st 6 weeks of life
inward state

*Later research countered that infants do have a sense of who they are through taste-smell-touch
Symbiotic Phase
not much independence outside of caretaker
blurring of line b/w caretaker and self (starts with breast feeding)
Differentiation and Dvlpt of Body Image

real sense of self and individual
crawl/walk/talk/influence world

1-2.5yrs child is curious and explores world- w/i orbit of mother

will not explore beyond sight of 'central figure'
move back closer to caregiver
child appreciates their vulnerability- scared

begin to have inhibition during exploring. Closer orbit during exploring
Emotional/Object Constancy
begin to gain confidence
regain exploring orbit (larger)

Object permanence-->object constancy
object permanence
building block for relationships and trust

concept of trust

leads to object constancy (OP->OC)
Erikson's 8 Stages of Man
said dvlpt doesnt stop at 18
each stage has particular challenges and resolutions that influence how we progress to next stage

trust v mistrust, autonomy v shame/doubt, initiative v guilt, industry v inferiority, identity v role confusion, intimacy v isolation, generativity v stagnation, integrity v despair
Trust v Mistrust
analagous to oral phase
earliest dilemma- am i safe?
concludes whether env is safe or not
Autonomy v Shame/Doubt
conveyed thru parental response
positive reinforcement during toilet training
Initiative v Guilt
willingness to explore. feels safe to try things
leads to a sense of I can do this
guilt casts shame and doubt

*Parent reaction is internalized into one's identity
Industry v Inferiority
"i can do this"
friendship and social skills

*Using Imagination and play for competency and role playing
Identity v Role confusion
during adolescence
teen reevaluates self
adult modeling and behavior
Intimacy v Isolation
young adult
look for significant others, relationships- emot/phys
close friendships

seen cross-culturally
Generativity v Stagnation
chose productivity, family, career

or dont take off
Ego Integrity v Despair
look back on life favorably or with regret

this stage has a lot to do with how the first stages developed
cognitive development

sensorimotor, preoperational thought, concrete ops, formal ops
similar to body ego
Preoperation Thought
vulerable to illusion
no concept of conservation of mass
Concrete Operations
main school years
not thinking abstractly yet, but can understand basic math/science
Formal Operations
Abstract concepts in math, science, and ethics