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28 Cards in this Set

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Reinforcement
to increase the frequency of a behavior
Reinforcement
that which increases a behavior
Positive reinforcement
adding something to a situation
Back-up reinforcement
Used in a token economy
Advantages to Tokens in a token economy
maintain behavior at high level
bridge delay problem
less subject to habituation
easy to adiminster
administration single reinforcer
negative reinforcement
Negative: removing an event
Reinforcement: to increase a behavior
Shaping
establish a nonexistant behavior
Shaping procedure
specify goal behavior, choose starting behavior, designate shaping steps

the rat is always correct
Ivar lovaas
Loved to shape launguage
Benifents of shaping
generous positive reinforcement
enhances self-efficacy
postive feelings about learning
minimizes failure
Chaining
the reinforcement of successive elements of a behavior chain
behavior chain a sequence of relatied behaviors each which provides the cue for the next
Types of chaining
Forward = front to back
and backward = back to front
differental reinforcement
?
Fixed ratio
reinforced after a fixed number of responces (FR-10)
extinguishes rapidly, strengthes new or weak responces
Fixed ratio graph
Draw
variable ratio reinforcement
reinforcement after a varying number of responces

ie slot machines (vr-10)
Interval scheduales of reinfocement
reinforcment based on passage of time
Fixed interval
paychecks and news

scallup pattern
behavior momentum
behavor continues even when enviroment changes
behavior contrast
switch schedules leads to behavioral effect
thin to generous increases behavior
generaous to thin stops resonding
behavioral persistence
ability to perform behavior even when there is not a lot of reinforcement
seligman study
leanerd helplessness: passivity
Punisher
a stimulus that suppresses the frequency of subsequent behavior
Positive punishment
adding something to decrease a behavior
negative punishment
subtracting something to decrease a behavior
Four steops to increase the effectiveness of punishment
abruptly introduced at moderate intensity
punishment should be immediate
low motivation for problem behavior or not opposed by reinforcement
provide response alternatives
6 problems with pushiment
models agression
punishment leads to more aggressive behavior
peopel try to escape the punishment and people who punish
negative emotions
punishment can lead to generalized responce suppression ***
some punishmen is not effective
hABIT reversal
awareness training
competing responce practicve
scioal support motivation strategy