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30 Cards in this Set

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Classical Conditioning
(also called Pavolovian Conditioning) refers to the relationship between stimuli and reflex response (conditioned and unconditioned)
Operant Conditioning
the relationship between overt events in the environment and changes in specific target behaviors. The events are classified as either antecedents or consequences. The consequence is reinforcing if the preceding behavior increases or is maintained at the current rate, duration, or intensity. The consequence is identified as a punisher if the preceding behavior decreases in rate, duration, or intensity.
Social Learning
The relationship among behavior and student's social and cognitive development; integrates classical and operant learning principles.
Behavior Therapy
The practical application of classical conditioning and is used primarily with covert behaviors such as fears and mental illness.
Applied Behavior Analysis
The direct applicaiton of behavior change principles in nonlaboratory, everyday situations and settings to produce socially significant changes in behavior. An extension of operant conditioning principles and methods of studying human behavior to clinical and socially important human behaviors.
J. B. Watson
(1878-1958) The father of behaviorism. Noted for his research in classical conditioning of fear responses by teaching a baby to be afraid of a white rat by using loud noises.
Stimulus
any condition, event, or change in the physical world. Stimuli include light, noise, touch, temperature, taste, smells, textures, etc., that evoke/elicit responses or respondent behavior.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
naturally stimulating or unlearned. Examples are food and sex. You don't have to learn that they are reinforcing. It's something that you'd want anyway. An unconditioned stimulus usually produces an unconditioned response. Like a bright light causes responses like closing eyes, covering eyes, or turning away.
Conditioned Stimulus
has been learned or conditioned. Like learning to fear dogs after you've been bitten.
Respondent Behavior
not controlled by the individual - involuntary, reflex behaviors or unconditioned responses.
I. Pavlov
(1849 - 1936) A Russion physiologst and Nobel Prize winner, the father of classical conditioning. Conditioned a dog to produce saliva in response toa bell by pairing the bell with the presentation of food.
E. L. Thorndike
Applied operant conditioning to the study of animal behavior and studied the relationship between behavior and environmental consequences. Demonstrated the provision of reinforcement as a consequence to increase the rate of learning by putting a cat in a box and noting that the cat learned to remove the barrier to get to the food in a decreased amount of time.
B. F. Skinner
The father of operant conditioning. Noted for the study of rat and piegeon behavior in his "Skinner Box." He expanded on Thorndike's research on the relationship between behavior and consequences. Promoted the use of operant conditioning as a mehtod of improving social conditions in his book, Walden Two (1948)
J. Wolpe
A South African Medical doctor noted for his research in classical conditioning and behavior therapy. Developed an anxiety reduction treatment called systematic desensitization still used today to redcuce anxieties and phobies. Did this by working with cats.
A. Bandura
The father of social learning theory. Noted for his research on the use of modeling ot teach behaivor. Promoted an integrated approach in which personal and environmental factors operate as interlocking determinants of each other. Warned of the social influences of masss media on behavior. Testified before congress regarding TV and violent behavior in children.
L. Lovass
The father of applied behavior analysis. One of the first researches to apply the principles of operant conditioning, especially reinforcement and punishment to children in applied settings. He is noted for his work with children with autism, though controversial for his use of "aversive" punishments that included yelling, slapping, and electric shocks.
Covert Behaivor Responses
Feelings and emotions
Overt Behavior Responses
Tantrums and Aggression
Response
a behavior that is observable and measurable
Response Generalization
changes in behaviors other than the behavior targeted for change or modification.
Stimuli
events and activities within the environment that are capable of forming a relationship with behavior as either an antecendent or a consequence.
Antecedents
stimuli that occur prior to behaviors.
Consequences
events or changes in the environment following a target behavior.
Reinforcement
a type of stimulus that serves as a consequence for a response or behavior that maintains the current rate, duration, or intensity of a response, may raise the probability that a new response will occur again, may increase the future rate, duration, or intensity of a response, or may strengthen a response that is weak and inconsistent.
Punishment
a type of stimulus that may serve as a consequence for behavior that changes the behavior in one of the following ways: decreases the probability of a new behavior occurring again, decreases or elimintes the future rate, duration, and/or intensity of a current behavior, weakens other dimensions of the behavior.
Natural Prompts
an environmental stimulus that naturally occurs prior to target behaviors. i.e. - the alarm clock is a natural prompt to get up in the morning.
Verbal prompts
the most common type of prompt used with children. Include: giving directions and asking questions.
Gestural Prompts
a simple gesture that visually directs an individual in a particular direction.
Modeling prompts
demonstrating part or all of the desired behavior to the student who imitates or repeats the action immediately.
Physical Prompts
consist of physically guiding a child in the performance of a target behavior.