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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Underestimation of LVOT diameter is the most common error leading to underestimation of
AV
Is Tricuspid more towards apex or base of hrt
Apex
Structures looked at to evaluate septal defect
IVS, SVC, PV coronary sinus
What are the hemodynamic consequences of ASD
RV volume overload
During Systole Av and MV are opened or closed
Av opened
MV Closed
The name of the artery of the medisternum that supplies blood to the right arm, head and neck.
The innominate artery, also called the brachocephalic artery or brachocephalic trunk.
What two arteries does the brachiocephalic artery branch off into
1) Common Carotid artery
2) Subclavian artery
The Hrt has 3 layers. What is the inside layer called
epicardium
The opening of the MV is surronded by a fibrous ring known as the
MV annulus
How many cusps does the PV have
Three
What is the Arantius Nodule
midpoint of the aortic cusps, where they are the thickest
Which sinus is behind each AV cusp
it's associated Valsalva Sinus
What is the function of the valsalva sinuses
They support cusps during systole and provide a reservoir of blood to augment coronary artery flow during diastole
Failure to achieve parallel alignment will result in _________ of true velocity
underestimation
As far as timing of the MV and AV jets, which has a longer duration
MV, it begins during isovolumic contration and extends in isovolumic relaxation
In rheumatic hrt disease the open anterior leaflet has been described as having a ______ appearance
hockey stick
Thickening and fusion of the MV commissural edges and chordae can create a ___ motion
dooming motion
On M-mode. First peak of MV movement ( early E wave) coincides with passive (diasystolic)
LA to LV flow
Second peak of MV m-mode movement coincides with
atrial contraction and active (systolic) flow of blood into the LV ( A wave)
AV pressure gradients depend on CO. They can be overestimated in high output stated eg. anemia and underestimated in low output states eg systemic hrt failure. The _____ ____ helps in this case.
continuity equation
# of pulmonary veins
4
R superior
R inferior

L superior
L inferior
pulmonary veins extend from the ____ _____ to the lungs
LA
Pulmonary edema can be divided into which two categories
1. edema caused by increased capillary pressure--hydrostatic or cariogenic edema

2. Edemas caused by capillary permeability--noncardiogenic pulmonary edema or acute respirtory distress syndrome ARDS
The most common cause of cardiogenic P. edema is
LV dysfunction
Types of Doppler ultrasound
1. CW
2. PW
3. Color Flow
Modified Bernouli Equation is used to measure
blood velocity--can determine chamber pressure and pressure gradients
Name of AV cusps
LCC, RCC, NCC
Name of PV cusps
AC, LC, RC
Name of TV cusps
Anterior, Septal and Posterior
Name of MV cusps
Aterior and Posterior
PV's septal leaflet is also called
medial leaflet
What is the double membrane sac
pericardium
Vena Cavas empty into the
RA
What is sometimes referred to as the second obstruction of MVS
pulmonary hupertension
When there is only one papillary mucle in the LV what is the deformity referred to that is often seen
Parachute
What can cause parachute of MV
MVS
supravalvular ring of LA
subaortic stenosis and
coarctation of the aorta
What does PISA stand for
proximal isovelocity surface area
Most common benign primary cardiac tumor is
myxoma
most common site of a myxoma is
LA
Ebstein anomaly is associated with what
TV. Characterized by apical displacement of the septal leaflet into RV cavity
What is Truncus Arterious
only one great artery leading into the heart---

Normally there are two, pulmonary and aorta
When pericardial cavity or space does fill with blood the HRT can't work and the condition is fatal if not treated. The name of this syndrome is
Cardiac Tomponade
Foramen Ovale connects what
Right and Left Atria
Ductus Ateriosus connects the
Aorta and Pulmonary Artery
Etiolory of RHD caused MVR
Blood wall hugging
Etiology of MVR ischemic
central blood movement
leaflet tenting
annular dilation
papillary muscle rupture
Meaning of Vena Contracta
narrowest portion of MR jet downstream of jet
formula for MVR volume
Flow across MV - LVOT
type of Doppler used to determine velocity
PW
on an EKG a saddle shaped ST segment elevation can indicate
pericarditis
Atrial connections
IVC
SVC
Pulmonary veins
CS
Whhich is the first to close Patent Ductus Arteriosus or PFO
Patent Ductus Arteriosis
intrinsic rate of AV node
50 beats/min
intrinsic rate of myocardiam tissue
30 beats/min
The Doppler pattern seen with acute MVR has the appearance of
a V wave
Watter balloon appearance of MV is assoiciated with
Marfans Syndrome
Basic divisions of LV
basal
mid
apical
Largest TV leaflet
anterior
The second HRT sound is made by the
closing of the AV valve
T wave on the EKG represents
ventricular repolarization
What is the absolute refractory state
that period when muscle cell is not excitable
from phase1 until into phase 3
during which phase of the hrt cycle does contration occur
phase 2
What is the infundibulum
RV outflow track funnel shaped
Where does the right subclavian artery arise from
Innominate artery
Tunica Adventitia refers to
The outer lining of arterial wall 3 secions of arterial wall are tunica intima, media and adventitia
The great vessels of the HRT are
Aorta and Pulmonary
Percent of oxygen in RA, RV and main PA
75%
percent of oxygen in LA, LV and Aorta
95 percent
Percent of oxygen in PA and PV
97 percent
2 common features of V volume overload
1) increase RV diastolic dimension
2) Paradoxical septal motion
Best window for viewing ASD
subcostal
normal pressure of LV
120/80
Normal pressure of RA
0-5
normal pressure of LV
10/12
Systole begins with
QRS complex
Diastole begins at
the end of the T wave
Beginning Diastole is known as
end systole
end systole is the end of the
T wave
End diastole to end systole is end of P wave to
end of T wave
End diastole is beginning of
QRS complex
Does AI happen during diastole or systole
Diastole
Valves with leaflets
MV and TV
Valves with cusps
PV and AOV the semilunar valves
ON M-mode E and A stand for
E-early diastolic filling
A- Atrial Kick
Congenital abnormality of TV where there is apical displacement of septal leaflet and tetering or the lateral leaflet to the ventrical wall
Ebstein anomaly
SV=EDV- ESV
what does this formula mean
stroke volume= end diastolic volume - end systolic volume
Factors that effect stroke volume
-HRT size
-contractility
-duration of contraction
-preload(end diastolic volume)
afterload
Co= __x_____
CO= SVxHR
CO means
cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by HRT per minute ML blood/min
SV means
stroke volume of blood pumped out of HRT with each beat
The most commonly blocked artery
left coronary artery
AI happens during diastoloe or systole
diastole
valves with leaflets
MV and TV
Valves with cusps
PV and AOV--- the semilunar valves
Congenital abnormality of TV where there is apical displacement of septal leaflet and tethering of the lateral leaflet to the ventical wall
Ebstein anomaly
SV=EDV- ESV
what dows EDV and ESV stand for
end diastolic volume (EDV)
end systolic volume ( ESV)
Factors that effect strok volume
HRT size
contractility
duration of contration
preload (EDV)
afterload
what is CO
cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by HRT per minute ML blood/min
what is SV
stroke volume is the volume of blood pumped out of HRT with each beat
In the ECG cycle lake ventricular filling occurs after the
the P wave on the ECG
on m-mode the A wave coincides with what
atrial kick and late diastolic filling
If patient presents with early diastolic murmur you would concentrate interest on the
AV and PV
Early diastolic murmurs are due to what
Aortic and pulmonic insufficiency-- severity of regurgitation is often inversely related to duration of the murmer
OHM's law
Co=AP/TPR

TPR= total peripheral resistance
when TPR increases what happens to CO
CO decreases
less peripheral resistance does what to CO
increases with less resistance
In laminar flow blood velocity is what at vessel wall
zero at vessel wall and highest at center of stream
Starling's law states
increase venous return and increase SV