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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Ad Hoc Hypothesis
A conjecture or speculation developed on the spot to explain a result.
Analogical Rhetoric
Visualizing one thing in terms of another.
Ex. "Her life was an uphill climb" and "He is between a rock and a hard place".
A Priori Method
The use of individual powers of pure reason and logic as a basis of explanation.
Ex. When we balance our checkbooks or leaving a tip at a restaurant, we presumably bring reason and logic into play.
What someone does or how someone acts.
Behavioral Science
A general term that encompasses scintific disciplines in which empirical inquiry is used to study motivation, cognition, and behavior.
Ex. The objective in all these branches of behavioral and social science is the smae: to describe nd explain how and whay humans think, feel, and behave as they do.
Control Group
A condition with which the effects of the experimental or test condition are compared.
Correlational Research
Another common name for relatioanl research, that is, research in which two or more variables, or conditions are measured and related to one another.
Descriptive Research
An empirical investigation in which the objective is to map out a situation or set of events.
Ex. If we are interested in the study of children's failure in school, we may spend a good deal of time measuring and evaluating the classroom behavior of those children who are doing poorly.
Describing controlled observation and measurment.
Empirical Reasoning
The combination of logic, carefully organized observation, and measurement.
Experimental Research
An empirical investigation in which the objective is a casual explanation.
Ex. X is responsible for Y.
Method of Authority
The acceptance of an idea as valid because it is stated by someone in a position of power or authority.
Ex. Faith Healers, TV Psychics, cult leaders.
Method of Tenacity
Clinging stubbornly to an idea because it seems obvious or is "common sense".
Ex. An ostrich that buries its head in the sand, these kind of people go through life excluding anything that might challenge or alter their beliefs.
Methodological Pluralism
The use of multiple methods of controlled observation of science.
Ex. Using one's method's strengths compensate for another's limitations.
Principle of the Drunkard's Search
The gathering of data in a convenient place but not a relevant one.
Ex. A drunkar lost his house key and began searching for it under a street lamp although he had dropped the key some distance away. Asked why he didn't look where he dropped it, he answered "there is more light here"
Bogus claims masquerading as scientific facts.
The study of the relationship between physical stimuli and our experience of them.
Random Assignment
A synonym for randomization.
Random Selection
Another name for random sampling.
Relational Research
An empirical investigation in which the objective is to identify relations among variables.
Ex. X is related to Y. (Pg. 16)
To repeat or duplicate a scientific observation.
The language of a given field, which in science encompasses the proper use of technical terms.
Scientific Method
A general approach or outlook (rather than a single method) emphasizing the use of empirical reasoning.
Theoretical Ecumenism
The use of more than one relevant theoretical perspective, in order to foster a holistic picture.
Ex. There is more than one "right way" to view the causes of behavior.