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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Where did beer originate and what was it called?
called Hek
Where was beer mostly produced and why?
Northern regions as grapes won't ripen there
What was the Bavarian Purity law of 1516?
Restricted beer's ingredients to barley, hops, and water

Had to follow this law

called: Reinheitsgebot

(doesn't really apply anymore)
What is the most important ingredient in Beer?
Why is Barley important for beer production?
80% starch
Contains Diastase, which is an enzyme that helps convert starch to sugar (aka Amylase)
It is NECESSARY for starch to sugar conversion
Provides a rich flavor when malted
What is Diastase?
an enzyme that helps convert starch to sugar (aka Amylase)
It is NECESSARY for starch to sugar conversion
What are adjuncts?
Other grains that can be used in beer production, like maize, wheat, and rice
What ingredient is ALWAYS present in beer production?
What are hops and what do they provide to beer and beer production?
Perennial plan, whose "cones" are added to beer.
Hops provide:
1) Aroma - oils in the hop give the aromatic qualities

2) Bitterness - balances the richness of the malt

3) Tannin - only minor amts of tannin are detected but significant to taste and feel of beer

4) preservative
When did hops come into play in beer?
late addition
(started around 9th century, but then popular as of 15 century)
how are hops harvested? manually or mechanically?
What is a general characteristic of british beer?
it's hoppy
How does water affect beer and what types of water are selected for what qualities?
Mineral content is key
Use of hard water for bitter beers
Use of soft water for other styles, such as lager

Breweries may emphasize their water source

Sometimes it is normal to adjust mineral content in water used
What is burtonisation?
adjusting mineral content in water at the brewery
What is the process of adjusting mineral content in the brewery?
Describe the importance of yeast in beer production
Determines the different styles of beer (ale and lager)

1) Saccharomyces Cerevisiae
Top fermenting - floats during fermentation
Prevents oxidization - don't need to close the vats
Can ferment at warmer temperatures

2) Saccharomyces Carlsberg
Bottom fermenting - need closed vat
Takes longer - happens under cooler conditions
What is the significance of sugar in beer production?
May be added before fermentation to increase potential alcohol
May sweeten beer after fermentation
Some countries ban the use of sugar
What is banned in some countries from being added to beer?
Name the steps in beer production
1. Conversion
2. Malting
3. Extraction
4. Flavoring
5. Fermentation
6. Conditioning
What are the steps of Conversion?
First step in the process

Barley grain is steeped
Water is drained and grain is kept warm and moist
Germination begins - buds / shoots and diastase starts to convert starch to sugars
Define steeping
Macerating grains in water in order to simulate germination
What is a malt?
A grain that has had its starch converted into fermentable sugar
What is the significance of a darker malt?
It has less sugar to convert into alcohol
Describe the Malting process
Second step of the process

Germination is stoppped by drying the grain in a kiln
The length of time in the kiln determines the type of malt (pale to dark)
List the types of Malt
Pale Malt
Lager Malt
Lightly roasted Pale Malt
Crystal Malt
Black or Chocolate Malt
What is Pale Malt? What is its significance?
Basis of ALL BEER

Least time in kiln
Highest percentage of fermentable sugars
What is Lightly roasted pale malt?
provides slighly less sugars than normal pale malt
What is crystal malt?
Golden brown
medium toasting
fuller flavor and more color
Less fermentable sugars
What is Black or Chocolate Malt?
Sugars have been caramelized
Rich, sweet flor
Don't need to use a lot of this to make it really dark
What is grist?
Dried grains that have been milled
Similar to dry cereal
What is wort?
Sugary liquid made from re-hydrated grist
Fermented to make beer
Product of Extraction (step 3 in Beer production)
Describe the Extraction process in beer production
Grain is milled and becomes Grist
Grist is soaked in warm water at 65 degrees C for 2 hours (known as mashing and done in a mash tun)
Sugars and flavors are extracted - produces Wort
What is mashing?
Process of soaking grist in warm water at 65 degrees C for 2 hours (done in a mash tun)
Describe the Flavoring step in beer making
Step 4 in production
Wort is transferred to a copper and boiled for 1 - 2 hours
Hops are added
Sugar may be added
What is a Copper?
Large copper container for boiling wort
What is Dry Hopping?
Adding hops at the end of the fermentation process
Describe the Fermentation Step in beermaking
Step 5 of the process
Wort is transferred to the fermentation vessel
Yeast is added
Fermentation lasts between 3 and 7 days
Hops are often added again
Describe the Conditioning Step
Clarification and encouragement of the sparkle
Can be done naturally or assisted

Filtering (especially for mass produced)
Adding CO2 (injection)

Can also add sugar to induce fermentation in bottle
What are the 2 main styles of beer? Also, what are 2 other styles?
Define a lager
Bottom fermented brew
Typically light colored, hoppy, and more crisp in flavor
Czech Republic, Holland, Germany
Where did Pilsner come from?
Czech Republic, town called Pils
(it's a Lager)
Define an Ale
Top fermented
Typically darker in color - amber
typically more full flavored and fruitier
Adopted by many micro-breweries
Define some types of Ales. Where is the "home of ales"?
Mild - many types
Bitter - hard water, darker (British style using hops that have seeds)
India Pale Ale - added hops to preserve in long voyage
Brown Ale - slighly sweet (add lactose and sugar)

Britain is the home of ales
Define Stout
strong flavored ale
dark color from highly malted grain
can be dry or sweet
lower alcohol
guinness is the most famous
Poerter is a london style of stout
Define Lambic
Spontaneously fermenting wheat beer from Belgium
Often macerated with various fruits (cherries, raspberries, blackcurrants, etc.)

Usually use wheat for this style (+ a bit of barley)
Ambient yeast starts fermenting the wort naturally
When did spirits first come about and who invented them? Also, when was wine distilled?
3500BC - Egyptians made elixirs and perfumes

1100AD - wine is distilled and used for medicinal purposes (aqua vitae, eau de vie)
What does Volatile mean?
easily evaporated
those elements that change from a liquid state to a vaporous state at a lower temperature than water does
What is a Still
apparatus where distillation takes place
What are Heads
Most volatile components in liquid
vaporize at relatively low temperatures
What are Hearts
Desirable spirits
Middle volatility
What are Tails
Least volatile components
Undesirable alcohols
What are the important chemical reactions that occur during distillation?
Alcohol and water are separated
Alcohol is more volatile than water (ethanol boils at 78.5, water boils at 100)
Describe the distillation process
consist of heating fermented liquid and then capturing the fumes
1. heat base product to 78.5
2. alcohol vaporizes
3. vapors are captured and cooled
4. when alcohol vapors cool they become liquid again
5. all spirits are clear directly from the still
6. distillate is divided into 3 parts: heads, hearts, tails

Most spirits are sold at 40% alcohol by volume
What are the 2 types of stills?
Pot still
Continuous, or Coffey or Patent still
What are the ingredients for spirits and why?
fruit, grain, vegetables
anything that can be fermented into alcohol can be distilled.
Describe the pot still process and what kind of product it produces
Batch process - more than one distillation is required to produce a spirit of sufficient alcoholic strength

less efficient, therefore must be repeated

has more flavor and retains character of base product

requires maturation in cask to mellow enough to drink
Describe the process and ending product of the Continuous still
continuous process
more efficient than pot still
produces higher alcohol product
one time only
very pure, highly rectified and less flavorful and character
coffey or patent still are other names for it
not all product require maturation
What is brandy and what are 2 main types?
product made from distilled wine

made from grapes!
Describe the location, climate, and soil of Cognac
North of BX
Borders Atlantic Ocean
Chalky Soil
Describe the vitification and vinification of cognac
Highly mechanized
High yields as you need a lot of product
Chaptalization is forbidden
Aim to make a High Acid, Low Alcohol Wine
Describe the history of cognac
controlled by AOC law
large vineyard area
small growers sell to large houses
Large houses dominate
long history of successful exports
River contributed to trade
Dutch were responsible for cognac's breakthrough - they were taking wine home and distilling it
Founder of many houses were English, Irish, and Scottish
What grapes are used in Cognac production?
Ugni Blanc
- most widely planted
- neutral, high acid wines
- fairly resistant to disease, mildew

Folle Blanche
What are the regions of Cognac production?
Grande Champagne
- best area
Petite Champagne
- champagne-like chalk in the soil
- best areas called "Champagne cognac"
Describe the distillation process of Cognac
Copper Charentais pot still only
double distilled
heads and tails are continuously re-distilled
raw distillate is approximately 70%
Describe the maturation process of cognac
Cognac picks up most of its flavor and color from wood ageing
Amount of aging defines the quality and style of cognac
All matured in french oak
( type of french oak forest influences as well )
Define the maturation labels on cognac
Designations are based on minimum ages of brandy
*** or VS
- 2 years aging in barrel
- 4 years aging in barrel
- 6 years aging in barrel
(as of 2008 it is 8 years)

Cognac is sold at 40%
Legal to add caramel or sugar
Compare Armagnac with Cognac
armagnac is:
more rustic and flavorful
less well known
smaller region than cognac
warmer and more continental
sand and clay soil
use picpoul instead of folle blanche
less acidic and higher alcohol than cognac b/c of warmer temperatures
retained spirit is lower in alcohol than cognac (around 70%)
lower % of distilled product = more flavor, less product added

use ugni blanc
controlled by aoc law
sold at 40%
Where is Armagnac located and what is the climate like?
South of BX

Warmer and more continental than Cognac
What is the soil like in Armagnac?
mixture of sand and clay
What grape varieties are used in the production of Armagnac?
Ugni Blanc
Describe the regions of Armagnac production
Bas Armagnac
-considered the best area
-best area with arich top soil
-Boulbene - sand and clay subsoil
-Wines with a low alcohol and high acidity
Haut Armagnac
Describe the distillation process of Armagnac
Traditionally single distilled
Armagnac still (alambic armagnacais) - their version of a pot still
Continuous method and pot still used
heads and tails removed
retained spirit is lower in alcohol than cognac - around 70%
full flavored and full of character
Describe the maturation labelling of Armagnac
- 2 yrs aging in barrel
- 5 yrs aging in barrel
- 6 yrs aging in barrel
Some Armagnac is also vintage dated
Some sold at cask strength
What distilled products are made in Spain?
2 DO controlled brandy producing regions:
1) Jerez
most important in terms of quantity
aged in solera in jerez
most grapes from La Mancha
made from Airen
2) Penedes
made from Parellada
What distilled product is made in Italy?
made from wine pmace
caffe coretta = coffee w/ grappa in it
What is Calvados?
Brandy made from the distillation of apple cider
From Normandy (N France)
Patent is still used for Cidre de Normandy (lesser product)
AC Calvados du Pays d'Auge must be distilled twice in a Pot still and is generally considered to be best quality
Best are oak aged
What are some other Fruit Distillates?
Not oak aged
Made from fermented fruit
Poire William
What is Scotch Whiskey?
Distilled from low-alcohol, ale-like liquid
Produced in Scotland
Must be aged for a minimum three years in wood barrells
What is the difference between Malt Whiskey and Grain Whiskey?
Malt = distilled twice in a pot still, 100% Malted barley

Grain = distilled in a continuous still, may contain other grains like wheat, maize, rye
What are the main stages of Scotch Malt Whiskey production?
1. Malting
2. Mashing
3. Fermentation
4. Distillation
5. Maturation
Describe the Malting process of Scotch Whiskey production
aka Conversion
Malting barley
Drying with peat fired flames = smoky flavor
Drying with other heat source = malting, more delicate flavor
Describe the Extraction or Mashingn process of Scotch Whiskey production
Extraction - similar process to bee production
starch converted to sugars
Resulting liquid is fermentable
Describe the Fermentation process of Scotch Whiskey production
Once the wort has been fermented it is known as "wash"
Describe the Maturation process of Scotch Whiskey production
Min 3 years
traditional use of sherry casks (don't want new wood. now going to other sources for wood: bourbon barrels, port barrels, etc.)
Age on bottle is min age of spirit
Flavours concentrate during aging
Some "single cask" and "vintage"
Most spirit is cut with distilled water prior to bottling
What are the factors that contribute to the character flavor of Scotch Whiskey?
Use of peat in the kilns to dry the grain gives earthy, sooty, tarlike, smoky aromas

Location of the distillery

Water and rock it travels through
What are the main types of scotch whiskey?
Mostly based on the location of their distillery:

Highland - huge range of styles, big river, most distilleries

Islay - island. Peat

Campbelltown - less peaty

Lowland - traditional low peat

Other Islands
What is Irish Whiskey and how is it made?
Peat not normally used in malting
Based on barley and other cereals
Barley is not 100% malted
Triple distilled in a pot still
Aged in wood in Ireland
Lighter and smoother than Scotch
What is Bourbon or Kentucky Straight Whiskey?
51% corn
Sour mash - yeast from the previous batch - produces a consistent style
2 years in heavily charred barrels - imparts vanilla character
Pot and patent stills
"straight" is aged for 2 years
What is Vodka?
Traditionally made from Potatoes
Now can also be made from grain, molasses, and rice
Made from a variety of materials
Patent still
Charcoal filter
Purity is everything (no taste. filter it out)
What are some other flavored spirits?

Macerate after 2st distillation
spirit with botanicals
juniper usually present
What is Rum?
mainly distilled from sugar cain
Produced in tropical countries:
central america
other caribbean islands

chile: pisco