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18 Cards in this Set

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What did Friedrich Miescher discover in 1869?
"Nuclein" - the first isolate from the nucleus, gathered from pus.
What were the old terms for DNA and RNA?
DNA called "thymus nucleic acid"
RNA called "yeast nucleic acid"
What was the "tetranucleotide hypothesis"?
Idea that repeating units of four nucleotides have a structural role.
What was the error in the "tetranucleotide hypothesis"?
It stated that the 4 bases were equivalent.
What did Frederick Griffith identify in 1928?
He identified the "transforming principle" using mice.
What was the setup of Frederick Griffith's experiment in 1928?
Using mice and Streptococcus he injected nonvirulent (R) bacteria, virulent (S), heat-killed virulent (S), and a combination of (R) and heat-killed (S). When he recovered live type (S) from the combination he proved that a "transforming factor" had changed the type R into S.
What did Astbury and Bell publish in 1938?
Astbury and Bell published the first X-ray diffraction pattern of DNA, indicating periodicity (repeating structure).
What did Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty first do in 1944?
They chemically purified the "transforming principle" (DNA).
What bias existed prior to Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty's experiments?
The bias was that the "transforming principle" had to be protein because protein was complex.
What did Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty add to their purified "transforming principle" to identify it?
Proteinase (no effect), RNase (no effect), and DNase (no more transforming principle).
What did Hershey and Chase do in 1952?
They compared whether protein or DNA was transferred to bacteria by bacteriophage.
How did Hershey and Chase verify that nucleic acids were transferred to bacteria by bacteriophages?
They labeled proteins with Sulfur 35 and nucleic acids with Phosphorous 32.
What did Erwin Chargaff do in the late 1940s?
Devised reliable paper chromatography techniques to isolate base composition of DNA.
What did Chargaff's experiments prove?
The levels of adenine=thymine and the levels of cytosine=guanine in DNA.
What did Francis Crick propose in 1958?
The central dogma of molecular biology (DNA -> RNA -> Protein).
What was determined in 1969?
The entire genetic code.
What were first constructed in 1972?
Recombinant DNA molecules
What technique was developed in 1986?
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed by Kary Mullis at Cetus Corporation.