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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Enclosure Movement

Widespread trend in England encouraged by Parliament in 1700s involving buying up of small land holdings by landowners and fencing in of lands previously open for public use
--caused by wealthy landowners successes w/new farming methods (from agricultural revolution)
--caused poor villagers (depended on village lands for raising crops and livestock)to lose means of making living and were forced to become beggars/farmhands and many moved to growing cities in search of work.
Domestic System
a means of production in which raw materials are distributed to employees who work in their homes to make goods
--called "piece work" bc people pai by piece of what they produced
--existed before there were factories
Adam Smith
Scottish economist who wrote A Wealth of Nations in 1776
-originated idea of Laissez-faire(leave business alone) and believeed that America would be best run under free enterprise system
-set forth principles of laissez-faire
Principles of Laissez-faire, set by Adam Smith
-entrepreneurs should be free to run their business in most profitable way
-what's good for entrepreneur is good for everyone(profit leads to business expansion=>more jobs/goods)
-free competition gives people chance to do jobs they do best
-gov't shouldn't meddle in business(only duty to keep peace and order)
Industrial Revolution
a period of dramatic change in the production of goods from hand-made to machine-made in factories which began in Britain in 1750 and lasted until about 1850
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Changed way of life
Led to urbanization..and it's effects
Growth of middle class
Triggered revolutions around the world
Free Enterprise System
Economic system based on private ownership of capital and idea that people are free to use their capital as they wish (capitalist)
an economic system in which means of production and distribution are owned and operated by individuals/groups (corporations--business owned by stockholders who pool their capital and share profits)
--based on private ownership and free-enterprise/market system (laissez-faire)
Steam Engine
Machine created by James Watt in 1769 which burned coal and created a way to use steam as a power source efficiently. All industries came to depend on the steam engine. Steam power replaced water power in coal mines, ironworks, and textile plants.
--made production much faster and allowed people to place factories near raw materials instead of running water.
Division Labor
workers perform only one task in the production of goods(managers began practicing this w/introduction of factory system)
People who manage and organize businesses ("idea man")
-major factor which allowed Britain to become industrialized
Factory System
Method of production in which workers are brought together to produce goods with machines in factories(cheaper, faster, and more efficient than domestic system)
--developed bc machines were very productive and helpful but were too expensive to be owned by individuals,too large to be kept in farmhouses and cottages, and needed running water for power.
-began division of labor, large #'s of workers brought together working under one roof
Mass Production
Production of goods in large quantities by machines
Profit Motive
working to make as much $ as possible without concern for anyone else (i.e.: workers, competitors)
Supply and Demand
In capitalist system, when demand for product is greater than supply of product, price goes up. When supply of product exceeds demand price goes down (when enough people want products producers will supply it to make profit)
Frederick Engels
German socialist who co-wrote Communist Manifesto with Karl Marx
Karl Marx
German political philosopher and economist whose theories laid basis for political-economic system communism
Communist Manifesto
a work published in 1848 by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels that describes basic principles of communism and calls for a working-class revolution world-wide
--reaction to conditions in Germany's industrial society
Communist Manifesto Continued
Claimed that bourgeosie (wealthy middle-class factory owners who had an unjust share of the profits) dominated and exploited the proletariet (wage-earning laborors/working-class/factory workers)
-believed that capitalist system would disappear bc shopkeepers and small business owners would be ruined by competition w/powerful capitalists and would then have to become part of the proletariet
Communist Manifesto

-later years, effects
-working class would continue to grow in this way, leaving only few wealthy people and a proletarian mass
-at this point, a great upheaval would take take place, made desperate by their poverty the workers would seize control of the gov't, take over means of production and destroy capitalist system and ruling class creating a "dictatorship of the proletariat" (sociesty run by working class)
-class stuggle would then end and "classless society" would emerge and people would equally share all wealth of new society, there would be no more need for state and it would wither away.
economic and social system in which all property and means of production owned by people in common and all goods/services shared (strong gov't regulation)
-wanted to lessen gap bwtn rich and poor(equal distribution of wealth)
-command economy
-supported by dictatorial/totalitarian regime and once everyone is under socialism and everything began to run smoothly gov't wouldnt be needed anymore and would gradually wither away
Ingredients for Industrial Revolution in Britain
-labor supply(large #'s of able workers bc birthrate increasing and death rate decreasing and small farmers left land to look for work.
-natual resources(rich in coal and iron ore, could import cotton from colonies)
-investment capital(had $ and goods ready to invest in new industries)
-entrepreneurs (had many "idea men" that organized and managed businesses)
-transportation (had harbors, extensive canal system, and navy to protect merchant ships)
-transportation(had harbors, extensive canal system, and navy to protect merchant ships)
-markets(Britain and colonies=good market for sale of manufactured goods)
-gov't support(gov't passed laws to protect businesses and help them expand)
Reforms Made by British Govt During Rev
Factory Act-1833 Act of Parliament that prohibited child labor(children under 9)

10 Hours Bill-stated that work day was limited to 10 hrs max.
hereditary leader of Japan's feudal society(commander in chief of Japanese Army) during Tokugawa Era(had much power over people even though emperor was "above them" in class leve)
-forced peoples allegiance to him which lost support of Japanese people who disliked their forceful tactics(led to their desire to abolish feudal society and change their social system)
-began Japan's period of isolation
warrior class in feudal Japan(professional soldiers, specialized army experts)
-considered leaders, had much power and respect
-also very cultured and artistically gifted