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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
This lower part of the brain modulates input from the spinal cord:

a)Brain Stem
b)Occipital Lobe
c)Basal Ganglia
d)Flexor Muscles
e)Central Sulcus
a)Brain Stem
Feed-forward control circuits are dominated by:

a) sensory input
b) the alpha male
c) a priori knowledge
d) defense mechanisms
e) flexor muscles
c) a priori knowledge
The cerebellum:

a)Gets ‘upset’ if its predictions are proven wrong
b)Contains approximately half the neurons in the brain
c)Is a site for initiating thought as well as movement
d)All of the above
e)None of the above
d)All of the above
This brain region receives direct sensory input from the periphery via afferent neurons :

a)Basal Ganglia
b)Cerebellum
c)LGN
d)Pituitary Gland
e)The Pons
b)Cerebellum
There is a linear relationship whereby as __________increases, __________ decreases, when performing both cognitive and motor tasks.

a)work, fun
b)coffee, sleep
c)attention, accuracy
d)speed, memory
e)speed, accuracy
e)speed, accuracy
The purpose of withdraw reflexes is:

a. to protect from harmful stimuli and preserve postural
control
b. to resist excessive lengthening of muscle
c. to mediate spinal reflexes
d. to act as an antagonist
e. to initiate feedback control circuits
a. to protect from harmful stimuli and preserve postural
control
Feed-forward control is dependent on:

a. involuntary reflexes
b. a priori knowledge
c. flexor muscles
d. avoidance
e. random circuits
b. a priori knowledge
__________ are primary players in reflex pathways.

a. interneurons
b. pyramidal cells
c. ganglion cells
d. fusion pores
e. neuroactive peptides
a. interneurons
Motor learning is mediated by both the __________ and
__________.

a. brain stem, cerebral cortex
b. cerebellum, basal ganglia
c. neurotransmitters, bipolar cells
d. magnocellular pathway, parvocellular pathway
e. hippocampus, amygdala
b. cerebellum, basal ganglia
Cerebellum and basal ganglia participate in both ____________and ___________ .

a). motor learning; cognitive processes
b). motor learning; immune responses
c). cognitive processes, immune responses
d). sodium regulation; potassium regulation
e). none of the above.
a). motor learning; cognitive processes
Which of the following is a component of muscle fiber membranes

a). musclearamus
b). mitochondria
c). ennonites
d). hematomas
e). all of the above
b). mitochondria
This part of the muscle fiber has a “bamboo” structure consisting of repeated cylindrical units called…

a). fiberonous
b). sarcomeres
c). myofibrils
d). my-your-a-fibril
e). none of the above
b). sarcomeres
All muscle movement is affected by the motion of …

a). individual contractile molecules
b). individual bone holes
c). individual affects
d). individual executive suites
e). none of the above
a). individual contractile molecules
In muscular contraction, detachment of myosin head requires

a). DNA
b). TMI
c). MRI
d). TOT
e). ATP
e). ATP
______________ control relies on information acquired before a feedback sensor is activated (e.g., using visual information to estimate a baseball’s path and brace your arm before the ball touches your hand).

a. Feed-forward
b. Feed-back
c. Forward-driven
d. Backward-driven
e. Feed the need
a. Feed-forward
In contrast to reflexes, voluntary movements are ______________ (i.e., they are initiated to accomplish a specific goal).
a. Forward-driven
b. Cybernetic
c. Backward-driven
d. Goal-driven
e. Data-driven
d. Goal-driven
Motor actions share important characteristics even when performed in different ways (e.g., handwriting looks similar no matter what limb is used to write it). This is called _____________.
a. Cybernetic theory
b. Movement kinematics
c. Motor equivalence
d. Movement dynamics
e. Motor segregation
c. Motor equivalence
____________ are cylindrical units containing contractile proteins and are the functional unit of the muscle.
a. Sacromeres
b. Z disks
c. Filaments
d. Y disks
e. Sacrum
a. Sacromeres
The _____________ modulates action of motor neurons in both the brain stem and spinal cord.
a. Brain Stem
b. Spinal cord
c. Cerebral cortex
d. muscles
e. none of the above
c. Cerebral cortex
Stimulation of cutaneous receptors elicits what kind of reflex?

a) stretch
b) load
c) withdraw
d) voluntary
e) rhythmic
c) withdraw
What is the name of the proprioceptors that consist of modified muscle fibers that provide information concerning muscle length and the rate of change in length?

a) Golgi tendon organ
b) muscle spindle
c) motor unit
d) tetanus
e) fascia
b) muscle spindle
What is the name of the interneurons that synapse back onto their afferent motor neurons producing negative feedback?

a) Renshaw cells
b) extrafusal
c) Ia
d) alpha motor neuron
e) intrafusal
a) Renshaw cells
What part of the brain is involved in timing and predictive control using both feed-forward and feedback control?

a) basal ganglia
b) pons
c) medulla
d) cerebral cortex
e) cerebellum
e) cerebellum
Which of the following protein molecules make up the sarcomere in muscle?

a) actin
b) myosin
c) transverse tubules
d) both a and b
e) none of the above
d) both a and b
Receptors in muscles produce ________ reflexes whereas cutaneous receptors produce _________ reflexes.
a) Stereotypic, withdrawal
b) Stretch, withdrawal
c) Withdrawal, stretch
d) Harmful stimuli, postural control
b) Stretch, withdrawal
Which of the following is/are true?
a) Flexion and crossed extension reflexes are mediated via polysynaptic pathways
b) Stretch reflexes are mediated by monosynaptic pathways
c) Stretch reflexes involve only one limb
d) Feedback control is ubiquitous
e) All of the above
e) All of the above
Feedback control is elicited by

a) Sensory input
b) Renshaw cells
c) Inhibitory interneurons
d) Veterinarians
e) None of the above
a) Sensory input
Which of the following have a direct link to external stimuli?
a) Spinal cord
b) Forebrain
c) Brain stem
d) Basal ganglia
e) a, b, and c
e) a, b, and c
Which of the following is true of muscle contraction?
a) The sacromere is the functional unit of the muscle, containing contractile proteins
b) All muscle movement is effected by the motion of individual contractile molecules
c) Contraction is produced by cyclical attachment and detachment of myosin heads on adjacent thin filaments.
d) Myofibrils have repeating dark and light bands called striations
e) All of the above
e) All of the above
A __________ is a neuronal network capable of
generating a rhythmic pattern of motor activity in the
absence of phasic sensory input from peripheral receptors.

a. central pattern generator
b. reflex pathway
c. gamma motor net
d. sarcomere
e. cross bridge
a. central pattern generator
This refers to a transient increase in excitability of
a neuron after the termination of inhibitory input.

a. repeated activation
b. divergence in reflex pathways
c. post inhibitory rebound
d. cutaneous reflex
e. proprioception
c. post inhibitory rebound
The __________ and __________ do not project directly
to the spinal cord.

a. sensory fibers, motor fibers
b. basal ganglia, cerebellum
c. afferents, efferents
d. dorsal roots, ventral roots
e. none of the above
b. basal ganglia, cerebellum
The __________ is involved in learning to associate a
particular sensory event with a specific movement, i.e.,
associative learning

a. contractile machinery
b. lateral dorsal premotor area
c. myofibril
d. force of contraction
e. antagonist
b. lateral dorsal premotor area
These are used to explore a visual scene.

a. myopathies
b. optokinetics
c. saccadic eye movements
d. eye blinks
e. visual fixations
c. saccadic eye movements
Early studies revealed that the basic rythmicity of stepping is produced
by neuronal circuits contained entirely within the ____________.

a. Brain stem
b. Cerebral cortex
c. Cerebellum
d. Spinal cord
e. Leg muscles
d. Spinal cord
_______________ is the sense of where one's body parts are in space.
a. Exteroception
b. Proprioception
c. Anteroception
d. Haptic Sensation
e. None of the above
b. Proprioception
The gaze system helps us helps us orient our _________ in our retina to
important visual information.
a. Rods
b. Blind Spot
c. Fovea
d. Head
e. Ears
c. Fovea
A ____________is a quick movement of the eyes.
a. Dash
b. Flip
c. Flash
d. Saccade
e. Smooth Pursuit
d. Saccade
Saccades are generated in the ______________ of the brain stem.
a. Cerebral cortex
b. Hippocampus
c. Reticular formation
d. Cerebellum
e. FFA
c. Reticular formation
Central Pattern Generators (CPGs) are responsible for a large number of rhythmic movements and may depend on which of the following?

a) network connections
b) properties of individual cells
c) properties of synapses
d) size of cerebral cortex
e) a, b, and c only
e) a, b, and c only
What is the area of the motor cortex involved in self initiated movement, motor planning, and imagery?

a) premotor cortex
b) supplementary motor area
c) primary motor cortex
d) prefrontal cortex

e) none of the above
a) premotor cortex
Experiments using injections of radioactive xenon have shown that complex finger movements ___________ cerebral blood flow to the medial premotor areas.

a) decrease
b) increase
c) reverse
d) stop

e) none of the above
b) increase
What is the name of the specialized area at the center of the retina that is less than 1 mm in diameter and allows for optimal, detailed vision?

a) fixation point
b) vergence center
c) gaze area
d) fovea
e) saccades
d) fovea
What is the movement system for keeping the fovea on a visual target that involves moving the eyes in opposite directions so the image is positioned on both foveae?

a) saccadic eye movements
b) optokinetic movements
c) vergence movements
d) smooth persuit movements
e) vestibulo-ocular movements
c) vergence movements
Which brain area initiates walking?

a). fusiform face area
b). parahippocampal place area
c). subiculum
d) brainstem
e). talk the talk or walk the walk center
d) brainstem
Removing somatosensory input (feedback) can lead to reorganization of a motor area in

a). a few years
b). a few weeks
c). a few days
d). a few hours
e). a few minutes
d). a few hours
The action of reaching engages which brain area?

a). amygdala
b) ventromedial hippocampus
c).dorsal premotor area (PMd)
d).dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
e). none of the above
c).dorsal premotor area (PMd)
The action of grasping engages which brain area?

a). ventral premotor cortex (PMv)
b). ventro-parietal occipital lobe
c). caudate nucleus
d). red nucleus
e). none of the above
a). ventral premotor cortex (PMv)
Gaze control, in contrast to voluntary movement, is primarily

a). a conscious, voluntary movement
b). a conscious, cortical function
c). an unconscious, subcortical function
d). an unconscious, cortical function
e). gaze control cannot be contrasted to voluntary movement.
c). an unconscious, subcortical function
1. The __________ fine tune(s) the locomotor pattern by regulating the timing and intensity of descending signals.

a. Cerebral cortex
b. Brain stem
c. Sensory input receptors from the skin
d. Cerebellum
e. None of the above
d. Cerebellum
Which of the following is not true of endogenous bursting cells?

a. They may be controlled by neuromodulators
b. They burst endogenously
c. They burst spontaneously
d. They can drive motor neurons
e. They are common in CPGs producing continuous rhythms such as those for respiration
b. They burst endogenously
The primary motor cortex is

a. Located in BA4
b. Under the hood
c. Comes into play after movements have been executed
d. Located in the occipital lobe
e. None of the above
a. Located in BA4
Individual movement of digits in primates is controlled by __________ in __________ of cortical neurons.

a. patterns of activity, populations
b. the primary motor cortex, descending pathways
c. the preferred direction, the lateral motor cortex
d. the gaze area, populations
e. the mind, clusters
a. patterns of activity, populations
Vertical saccades are generated
a. In the hypothalamus
b. In the amygdala
c. In the smooth pursuit system
d. In the midbrain
e. In the mesencephalic reticular formation
e. In the mesencephalic reticular formation
Which of the following is NOT a function of the vestibular system?

a). Maintain balance
b). Regulate heartbeat
c). Identify orientation in space
d). Stabilize retinal image
e). All the above are functions of the vestibular system
b). Regulate heartbeat
What is the name of the fluid that fills the chambers of the vestibular labyrinths?

a). endolymph
b). endocytosis
c). ectoderm
d). chamber fluid
e). labyrithydrolosis
a). endolymph
The semicircular canals

a). process visual information
b). process only information that is presented 180 degrees to the ear.
c). process ticket prices to Venice
d). Process rotational information
e). none of the above
d). Process rotational information
Which of the following is a symptom of Meniere disease?

a). intermittent vertigo
b). drowsiness
c). memory loss
d). adult onset diabetes
e). non of the above
a). intermittent vertigo
Nystagmus refers to

a). the reflex knee jerk
b). jerking eyes
c). one who acts like a jerk
d). saccading eyes
e). none of the above
b). jerking eyes
Living and working in fractional gravity environments of the Moon (0.17 G) or Mars (0.38 G) would affect which two components of the vestibular labyrinths?

a) greater saccular nerve/superior saccular ramus
b) utricle/saccule
c) cochlea/stapes
d) dura/ampulla
b) utricle/saccule
What is the component of the vestibular system that processes rotational information?

a) semicircular canals
b) cochlea
c) ramus
d) endolymphatic sac
e) all of the above
a) semicircular canals
The ________ coordinate system would particularly be affected when experiencing a microgravity environment.

a) egocentric
b) exocentric
c) equilibrium
d) geocentric
e) endocentric
d) geocentric
The cerebellum plays a role in which of the following adaptive control systems?

a) anticipatory motor control
b) learned motor control
c) vestibulo-ocular control
d) all of the above

e) none of the above
d) all of the above
Which of the following is the location of both learning and long-term memory storage following adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex?

a) Purkinje cells
b) mossy fibers
c) vestibular nucleus of brainstem
d) granule cell
e) inferior olivary nucleus
c) vestibular nucleus of brainstem
The _______________ coordinate system is concerned with the relative
position of body parts in regards to each other.
a. Exocentric
b. Egocentric
c. Geocentric
d. Postural equilibrium
e. None of the above
b. Egocentric
The ______________ reflex rotates the eyes to compensate for head
movement when tracking an object.
a. Triceps
b. Biceps
c. Ankle Jerk
d. Vetisbulo-Ocular
e. None of the above
d. Vetisbulo-Ocular
______________ disease is a disorder of the vestibular system that
results in incessant vertigo and tinnitus (ringing in the ear).
a. Parkinson’s
b. Hutchinson’s
c. Ménière's
d. Gaspelin’s
e. None of the above
c. Ménière's
Which of the following is not a function of the vestibular system?
a. To stabilize an image on the retina
b. To aid in maintaining balance
c. To identify orientation in space
d. To hear sounds
e. To identify direction of bodily movement
d. To hear sounds
______________ refers to when all forces acting upon the body are
balanced so that the body rests in its intended position.
a. Somatosensory Bliss
b. Postural Equilibrium
c. Postural Chaos
d. Exocentric Stasis
e. None of the above
b. Postural Equilibrium
1. Which if the following is not a receptor organ of the vestibular labyrinths?
a. Utricle
b. Ventricle
c. Saccule
d. Anterior vertical semicircular canal
e. Horizontal semicircular canal
b. Ventricle
. Hair cells contact a sheet containing what kind of dust?

a. Calcium
b. Calcium carbonate
c. Calcium lactate
d. Calcite
e. b and d
e. b and d
3. Which of the following is not true of Meniere disease:
a. Can cause tinnitus
b. Usually occurs in middle age
c. Is generally bilateral
d. Can be exacerbated by high salt intake
e. Can occur following anxiety
c. Is generally bilateral
4. The vestibular nerve projects from the vestibular ganglion to nuclei in

a. the medulla and pons
b. the spinal cord
c. the cerebellum
d. the visual system
e. the adrenal medulla
a. the medulla and pons
5. The vestibulo-ocular reflex adapts _________ after magnifying glasses have been worn by a monkey or a human?
a. One day
b. One hour
c. Two weeks
d. One week
e. One month
d. One week
. __________ of hair cells within the vestibular labyrinths open and close ion channels.

a. stabilization
b. deflection
c. receptivity
d. sensitivity

e. none of the above
b. deflection
The chambers of the vestibular labyrinths are covered with:

a. epithelial cells
b. endolymphs
c. utricles
d. saccules
e. fibers
a. epithelial cells
An example of plasticity with respect to semicircular canals is that complex acceleration patterns change at birth and during __________.

a. perception of pain
b. spinal reflexes
c. the learning of new motor skills
d. transduction
e. cognition
c. the learning of new motor skills
In head rotation, the cells in opposite sides of the head will work __________.

a. in opposition
b. in tandem
c. independently
d. rarely
e. indefinitely
a. in opposition
In the cerebellum, feed forward and feed-back mechanisms of postural control may be generalized to include cerebellar modulation of __________.

a. motor processes
b. cognitive processes
c. saccadic eye movement
d. vestibular response
e. cervicospinal reflexes
b. cognitive processes