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12 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Increased ICP
-Order of 4 compartments affected by increased ICP
1. Subarachnoid Space (CSF expulsion)
2. Ventricles (CSF expulsion)
--NL. CSF pressure: 60-170
3. Veins (Leads to Edema)
4. Arteries (Leads to Ischemia)
3 Sites of brain herniations
-Site and what tissue is herniated
1. Space under the falx over the corpus callosum: causes herniation of the cingulate gyrus

2. Opening of the tentorium where the midbrain continues into the upper pons. Herniation associated with deep coma and loss of pupillary reflexes

-Mesial temporal lobe moves to infra tentorial position resulting in uncal grooving

-Superior mid brain moves to infra tentorial position.

-Contralateral cerebral peduncle is contused, resulting in hemorrhagic necrosis seen as Kernohan's notch

3. Foramen magnum, where lower medulla meets upper cervical spinal cord. Medullary herniantion damages compromises vital structures; lesions are irreversible and fatal.
Name the 6 Signs of increased ICP
-Positional Headache
-Mental Changes
-Epileptoform fits
Describe the 6 signs of Inc. ICP
-Positional Headache
-Mental Changes
-Epileptoform fits
-weeks; nausea; apathy; drowsiness; visual and cognitive deficits; focal lesion signs

*Positional Headache
-evoked by specific head position

-projectile; frequency correlates with ICP level

-engorged retinal veins; swollen optic disc with flame hemorrhages

*Mental Changes
-variable; glial hippocampal/amygdalic lesions mimic psychosis such as shizoprenia; frontal lobe lesions present as deep apathy and depression

*Epileptoform fits
-astrocytomas in motor cortex or temporal lobe
Malignant vs. Benign neoplasms
-metastatic neoplasms

-acoustic schwannomas
-CP papillomas
-Grading system
-Growth pattern
Grading system
-Based on cellularity, pleomorphism, mitotic figures, necrosis, and vascular proliferation

Growth pattern
-Infiltrative from multiple foci without well demarcated margins

-Rarely outside the CNS. Within the CNS, spreads along prexisting pathways.
-Cellular origin
-Cellular origin: mesoderm
-Prognosis: benign
-Cellular origin
-Anatomical location
-Cellular origin: endothelial cells
-Prognosis: good
-Anatomical location: cysts in the cerebellum
-Cellular Origin
-Typical Symptoms
-Cellular Origin: usually schwann cells surrounding acoustic nerves or spinal cord sensory roots
-Prognosis: benign
-Typical Symptoms: produced from pressure on adjacent nerves, ie: hearing loss
metastatic carcinomas
-Site of initial growth
-Common neoplasms metatsatic to CNS
-Histological appearance
- Junction between cortical gray and white matter

-Lung, breast (dural), melanomas (hemorrhagic), lymphomas.

-Well demarcated; grow expansively displacing adjacent parenchyma.