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8 Cards in this Set

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4 types of drugs to achieve general anesthesia
1. Short acting IV drug to induce unconsciousness
2. Narcotic to decrease pain/nociceptive pathways
3. Muscle relaxant
4. Inhaled anesthetic to "maintain" the state
Definition of general anesthesia: 6 characteristics
1. decreased response to surgical stimulation
2. skeletal muscle relaxation
3. hypnosis/sleep
4. amnesia
5. immobility
6. Decreased reception from all sensory modalities
Characteristics of Nitrous Oxide
-Smell
-Solubility
-Potency
-Analgesia
-Muscle relaxation
-Toxicities
-Usage
-odorless to sweet smell
-low solubility
-low potency
-good analgesic
-poor MR
-Megaloblastemia, peripheral neuropathy, expansion of closed air spaces. Risk of POCD in elderly
-Used for rapid on/off; no BP effects, and to decrease dose of another anesthetics
Halothane
-Smell
-Solubility
-Potency
-Analgesia
-Muscle relaxation
-Toxicities
-Usage
-Sweet smell
-very high solubility
-high potency
-poor analgesic
-poor MR
-Hepatotoxic
-Rarely used
Isoflurane
-Smell
-Solubility
-Potency
-Analgesia
-Muscle relaxation
-Toxicities
-Usage
-Pungent odor
-medium solubility
-potent
-good analgesic
-good MR
-tachycardia; weakly neurotoxic (POCD)
-most widely used halogenated inhaled anesthetic
Desflurane
-Smell
-Solubility
-Potency
-Analgesia
-Muscle relaxation
-Toxicities
-Usage
- Very pungent smell
- low solubility
- less potent than isoflurane
- tachycardia
- expensive. used for short same day surgeries
Sevoflurane
-Smell
-Solubility
-Potency
-Analgesia
-Muscle relaxation
-Toxicities
-Usage
NEW: best characterisitics of desflurane and halothane.
-less pungent
-low solubility
-less neurotoxic
-drug of choice for children
Definition of MAC
-midpoint of concentration to achieve a defined response to a defined stimulus -->stimulus dependent
-Remarkably consistent across the population
-MAC is very low for the halogenated hydrocarbon anesthetics in comparison to NO