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6 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The genetic circadian clock
-Brain location
-Synchronization
-Hormonal Control
-Located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus

-Internal clock is slightly longer than 24 hour photoperiod thus it must be synchronized daily. This occurs via melanopsin photoreceptors in the retinal ganglion cell layer than project to the SCN. This occurs independent of sleep.

-SCN exerts control over the rest of the physiological oscillators via melatonin secretion from the pineal gland and many hormones secreted from the pituitary gland.
-What two processes control awake vs asleep state?
-How do environmental factors influence awake vs. asleep state?
-The Circadian drive for wakefulness (Process C) vs. homeostatic drive for sleep (Process S)

-External factors such as stress, boredom, caffeine, etc. only have a minor influence and only mask or expose sleep pressure.
EEG features of the sleep cycle
-Awake
-Overall NREM characteristics
-Stage 1
-Stage 2
-Stage 3/4
-REM
-Awake: low voltage, random fast waves

-NREM overall: increasing hypersynchrony; slowing of dominant EEG frequency, increased amplitude and stage specific wave features.

-Stage 1: theta waves
-Stage 2: sleep spindles and K complexes
-Stage 3/4: delta waves (slow wave sleep)

-REM: EEG dysonchrony; resembles awake state with low voltage, random fast waves with sawtooth waves.
Proper Sleep Architecture
-Sleep cycle structure and duration
-Number of healthy cycles
-Stage makeup in Early cycles vs. late cycles
-1,2,3,4,REM cycle of ~90 minutes

-4 to 6 cycles needed/night

-Earlier cycles NREM portion is dominated by stages 3/4 (when sleep walking/talking can occur), but these are almost absent in later cycles NREM
-Later cycles have a greater REM component
Eye movements during overwhelmingly sleepiness
-Eyelids
-Eyes
-Progressively slower eyelid closures

-When eyelids open, slow eye rolls out and upward. This hallmark of sleep onset illustrates CN III, IV and VI being affected by the sleep switch.
Physiologic effects of reduced sleep duration
-Sleep latency times
-EEG during sleep
-Eyes and eyelids
-Effects on two hormones
-Blood cells
-Sleep latency times increase

-Increase slow wave EEG during sleep

-Increased slow eye movements and eyelid closures

-Leukocytosis and monocytosis

-Increased cortisol levels and resistance to insulin