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35 Cards in this Set

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Define Attachment
Affectional tie that one person forms to another person, binding them together in space and enduring over time
Define Attachment behavior
promotes proximity to or contact with the specific figure to which the individual is attached
Attachment formation
*Phase 1
1)Title
2)Duration
3)Definition
1)Indiscriminate sociability or Preattachment
2)Birth-2 months
3)Visual fixation toward mother's presence and voice, rhythmic reaction to her voice, crying, cooing, and smiling.
Attachment formation
*Phase 2
1)Title
2)Duration
3)Definition
1) Attachments in the Making
2) 2-7 Months
3) Selective attachment to one or more persons. Develops social smile, differential vocalizations, and greeting responses
Attachment formation
*Phase 3
1)Title
2)Duration
3)Definition
1) Specific Attachments
2) 7-24 Months
3) Emergence of Separation anxiety, stranger anxiety, and possible attachments to transitional objects
Attachment formation
*Phase 4
1)Title
2)Duration
3)Definition
1) Goal Coordinated Partnerships
2) 24 months onward
3) Primary caretakers seen as separate people, understand they will return after brief absences, separation anxiety is reduced, develop greater autonomy and can form relationships with others.
Strange Situation: Behavior Classifications
*Secure Attachment
1) Observed behavior
2) Predicted Consequences
3) Correlation with Adult narrative
1) Normal exploration; maintain contact with caretaker; pleasurable reunion with caretaker

2) Predicts greater cooperation, compliance, likelihood to seek assistance, and better adaptation in-pre school

3) Secure/Autonomous narrative:
Strange Situation: Behavior Classifications
*Disorganized, dissoriented Attachment
1) Observed behavior
2) Predicted Consequences
3) Correlation with Adult narrative
1) Array of odd behaviors; frightened or passive; no interaction with caretaker or stranger

2) Predicts behavioral, social, and emotional difficulties and childhood psychopathogies.

3)Unresolved, disorganized narrative
Strange Situation: Behavior Classifications
*Anxious-avoidant Attachment
1) Observed behavior
2) Predicted Consequences
3) Correlation with Adult narrative
1) Normal exploration; little interaction with caregiver; no preference for caregiver or stranger; don't initiate contact upon reunion with caretaker

2) Predicts avoidance of parental interaction and assistance; antisocial behavior in pre-school

3) Dismissing narrative
Strange Situation: Behavior Classifications
*Anxious-resistant Attachment
1) Observed behavior
2) Predicted Consequences
3) Correlation with Adult narrative
1) Little exploration; very wary of stranger; not comforted by reunion with caretaker; combine resistance with active reconnection attempts

2) Predicts anger and resistance to parental discipline ad assistance; more tense, impulsive, frustrated, helpless, and whining in pre-school

3) Preoccupied narrative
Define Temperament
constitutionally based individual differences in reactivity and self regulation as observed with the domains of emotionality, motor activity, and attention
Define
-Reactivity
-Self Regulation
Reactivity: refers to characteristics of the individual’s responsivity to changes in the environment
Self-regulation: the processes modulating the individual’s reactivity (e.g. approach, avoidance, inhibition)
4 qualities of a temperamental category
A temperamental category is a quality that:
1.varies among individuals
2.is moderately stable over time and situation
3.is under some genetic influence
4.appears early in life
Chess and Thomas:
Name the 3 constellations of child temperament
1.“The easy child” (40%): regular, positive approach responses to new stimuli, adaptable, and positive moods.

2.“The slow-to-warm-up child” (15%): slow adaptability, mild irregularity, mild intensity of reactions, withdrawal tendencies toward novel stimuli.

3.“The difficult child” (10%): irregular patterns of eating, sleeping, elimination and activity level; intense moods (often negative); negative withdrawal responses to new stimuli; non/slow adaptability
Kagan et al.
-Inhibited children
-Disinhibited children
-Characteristics of inhibited children in comparison to disinhibited children
1.Inhibited children: extremely shy with strangers and timid in unfamiliar situations. higher and more stable heart rates, larger pupils, and greater motor tension than controls.

2.Disinhibited children were extremely outgoing and with strangers, explorative in unfamiliar situations. lower and more heart rate variability, normal pupils and no differences in motor tension as compared to controls.

3. Inhibited children had impaired recall following stress, unusual phobias, greater right frontal cortical activation, atopic allergies, blue eyes, ectomorphic body and narrow face.
Name 4 factors in personality development
Reciprocal interaction, goodness of fit with environment, and resiliency/vulnerability
Cloninger's three dimensions of personality
-Name
-Neurotransmitter
1. Novelty seeking: dopamine

2. Harm avoidance: serotonin

3. Reward dependence: norepinephrine
Kagan: 3 postulated physiologic differences underlying an inhibited temperament
-Name them
-Neurotransmitter and hormone involved
-Preparedness to detect subtle discrepancies, reactivity of amygdala, and the degree of visceral feedback to limbic system

-Hypothesized that inhibited children have higher levels of norepinephrine and corticotropin releasing hormone
5 purposes of defense mechanisms
1. to keep emotions within bearable limits
2. to restore emotional balance
3. To obtain a “time-out”
4. To handle unresolvable conflicts
5. To survive major conflicts with conscience
Psychotic Defense Mechanisms
-Define
-When they are present
-list 3
-involve altering one’s perceptions of reality

-common in healthy individuals
before age 5



1) Delusional projection
2) Denial
3) Distortion
Immature Defense Mechanisms
-Define
-When they are present
-list 5
-transform the distress of threats of intimacy/loss into behavior or emotions not acknowledged as self generated.

-common in healthy individuals ages 3-15

1) Projection - attributing unacknowledged feelings to
others

2) Schizoid fantasy - use fantasy for conflict resolution and gratification

3) Hypochondriasis - transfomr reproach towards others arising from bereavement, loneliness, or unacceptable aggressive
impulses into self-reproach and complaints of pain and somatic illness

4) Passive-aggressive behavior through aggression directed against oneself

5) Acting out - direct expression of an unconscious wish in order to avoid being conscious of the accompanying emotion
Neurotic Defense Mechanisms
-Define
-When they are present
-list 5
-these alter private feelings to minimize distress

-common in healthy individuals
ages 3-90

1) Intellectualization

2) Repression
3) Displacement -redirection of feelings toward a less cared for “object”

4) Reaction formation: behavior diametrically opposed to an unacceptable impulse

5) Dissociation
Mature Defense Mechanisms
-Define
-When they are present
-list 5
-integrate reality, relationships, and feelings in more adaptive ways

-common in healthy individuals ages 12-90

1) Altruism
2) Humor
3) Suppression
4) Anticipation
5) Sublimation
Define personality disorder
Definition: When personality traits are inflexible, maladaptive and cause
either significant impairment in social or occupational functioning, or
subjective distress, they are said to constitute a personality disorder.
Cluster A Personality Disorders
-Name the 3
Cluster A (the eccentric disorders)
1) Paranoid
2) Schizoid
3) Schizotypal
Cluster B Personality Disorders
-Name the 4
Cluster B (the dramatic disorders)
1) Antisocial
2) Borderline
3) Histrionic
4) Narcissistic
Cluster C Personality Disorders
-Name the 3
Cluster C (the anxious disorders)
1) Avoidant
2) Dependent
3) Obsessive-compulsive
Effects of Puberty on adolescents
-Early puberty for boys vs girls
-Late puberty for boys vs. girls
Early: good for boys, difficult for girls
Late: difficult for boys, transient anxiety for girls
Three developmental routes through adolescence
1) Continuous growth
2) Surgent growth
3) Tumultuous growth
1) smooth, steady....

2) spurts and uneven...

3) Inner and interpersonal conflict...
ADHD
-5 Diagnostic criteria
A: 6+ symptoms of inattention and or hyperactivity/impulsivity persisting for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level

B. Some symptoms that caused impairment present before age 7

C. Some impairment present in two or more settings

D.clinically significant impairment

E. symptoms do not occur exclusively during a psychotic disorder and not better accounted by another mental disorder
ADHD
-5 Diagnostic criteria
A: 6+ symptoms of inattention and or hyperactivity/impulsivity persisting for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level

B. Some symptoms that caused impairment present before age 7

C. Some impairment present in two or more settings

D.clinically significant impairment

E. symptoms do not occur exclusively during a psychotic disorder and not better accounted by another mental disorder
????Neurobiological evidence for pathophysiology of ADHD????
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????Differential Diagnoses wrt ADHD????
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???Assessment of ADHD???
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???Pharmacologic Treatment of ADHD
1) Psychostimulants
2) Alpha-adrenergic agonists
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