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46 Cards in this Set

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Flynn Effect
! Raw scores on IQ tests have increased in most parts of the world, approximately 3 IQ points per decade
! When a new version of an IQ test is normed, the standard scoring is set so that performance at the population median results in a score of IQ 100
IQ increase seen when
ame subjects take both versions
! Similar effect has been found with increases on memory measures
Intellectual Functioning • Crystallized
depends on education related to stimuli & concepts available to members of a cultural group, factual information
– Evolved into verbal processing
Intellectual Functioning Fluid -
novel problem-solving, broad reasoning, procedural
knowledge
– Evolved into visuospatial processing
Fluid intelligence declines with age while crystallized intelligence
remains largely resistant
HeritabilityofIQ
.5to.9
Heritability of IQ in
Children
Adolescent
18 yrs and older
.45,Adolescents=.75,18years&older=.8
Heritability of IQ findings suugest
thattheunderlyinggenesactuallyexpressthemselvesby affecting a person's predisposition to build, learn, and develop mental abilities throughout the lifespan
Heritabilityincreaseswith
education,longevity,&socialclass
Dutch twin study: Heritability age 5-12 years
Age5=26%
! Age7=39%
! Age 10 = 54%
! Age 12 = 64%
Heritability of Intelligence Reliability over time:
correlation of .73 (after factoring in restriction of range) in people tested at age 11 and again at age 79
! IQ at age 11 had correlation of .8 on national achievement tests 5 years later
Genetic influence strongest when
brain region undergoes major development (e.g., sensory motor cortex in childhood ; prefrontal cortex & temporal lobes in adolescence)
In children 5-18 years old, trajectories of cortical thickness better predicted IQ at age
20; initially negative correlation in early childhood becomes positive later
! IQ correlation is stronger for gray matter volume than white matter
glucose consumption is negatively correlate with
IQ which may mean intelligent individuals use their neurons more efficiently
fMRI: Intelligent brains more efficientbecause
(use fewer resources)
Risk Factors for brain development
Genetic (chromosomal or monogenic)
! Teratogens
! Metabolic disorders
! Elevated intracranial pressure with hypovascularity
! Secondary cerebral deformation resulting from brain growth in abnormally shaped skull
Bulk Growth Abnormalities
Brain-to-body ratio 1:30 ! Extreme variations:
Microcephaly-subnormal brain & head size
Megalencephaly- overproduction of cerebral parenchyma
Both associated with suppressed IQ
Agenesis of the corpus callosum
may be partial or complete, can be asymptomatic; mild cognitive impairment
Intracranial Pressure (ICP)
Hypoplasia of underlying brain tissue
! Elevated risk for mental retardation & learning
disabilities
! Neurobehavioral problems (attention, planning, processing speed)
Fundamental Assumptions of Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment
It is possible to make valid inferences regarding the integrity of the brain through the observation of behavior.
2. Observable behavior is frequently the most sensitive manifestation of brain pathology.
Fundamental Assumptions of Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment cont'd
3. Observable behavior, including
The Neuropsychological Evaluation
Portable: 1-7 hours
! Objectively scored, compared to normative groups ! Standardized, valid and reliable
! Quantitative and qualitative interpretation
! Biases: Age, Education, Culture
Pediatric Evaluations
Psychoeducational
Multi-disciplinary
Neurodevelopmental
Neuropsychological
Psychoeducational
IQ, achievement, parent & teacher behavioral checklists, observation
Multi-disciplinary
team approach including assessment of vision, hearing, social & emotional status, intelligence, academic skills, communication skills, motor abilities
Neurodevelopmental
assessment of milestone acquisition & trajectories; not predictive of later IQ
Neuropsychological
cognitive profile in the context of brain/behavior relationship
Developmental Testing
Usedtoassessinfantsandyoungchildrenin order to examine early development
Neuropsychological Evaluation
! Intellectual Functioning
! Academic Achievement
! Attention and Concentration
! Verbal and Visual Memory
! Problem Solving Skills
! Receptive and Expressive Language ! Visual-Perceptual Abilities
! Sensorimotor Skills
! Personality and Emotional Status
! Behavioral Functioning
knowledge the most resistant to acute brain changes
! Accumulated verbal knowledge (Vocabulary, reading abilities)
Verbal Functioning- comprehension, reasoning, expression is an example of
crystallized Intellectual Functioning
Nonverbal Functioning- visuospatial processing, reasoning is an example of
Intellectual Functioning
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV
Verbal Comprehension (VCI)
! Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)
! Working Memory (WMI)
! Processing Speed (PSI)
120+ Superior
110-119 High Average
90-109 Average
80-89 Low Average
70-79 Borderline
69 - Mental Retardation (Intellectually Deficient)
Academic Achievement
Sight word reading & comprehension ! Mathematical calculation & application ! Spelling to dictation
! Written expression
! Academic fluency (reading, math, and written expression)
Memory Functions
Attention
! Immediate verbal/auditory retention span
! Immediate visual retention span
! Learning & efficacy of retrieval (spontaneous vs. cued)
! Intermediate or long-term memory
! Recognition
Verbal Memory Tests, Narrative Memory
Weschler Memory Scale–IV
! Children"s Memory Scale
! Structure and semantic context
Verbal Memory Tests Serial Learning Tests
Rey or California Verbal Learning Test ! Attention
! Benefit from repeated trials
! Chunking/clustering
Visual Memory Tasks
Figural/Facial Memory: simple
! Rey Complex Figure ! Immediate
! Delayed
! Recognition
Executive Functions Associated with
frontal-subcortical circuitry ! Planning, organization, self-monitoring
! Problem-solving, set-shifting
! Critical for adaptive skills, independent living
Tests of Executive Function
Trail Making Test
! Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
! Similarities, Interpretation of Proverbs ! Children
Evaluation of Visuospatial Skills
Non-motor visuoperception ! Visual construction
! Motor planning
! Not acuity
Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule
Response to Name
! Response to Joint Attention
! Unusual Eye Contact
! Use of Gestures
! Shared Enjoyment in Interaction
! Idiosyncratic Use of Words or Phrases
Social Cognition
" Theory of Mind (NEPSY-II)
taking the perspective of another person
Psychosocial Functioning
Personality ! Emotions
! Behavior
! Family dynamics ! Social network ! Situational influences
Earlier intervention has better
neurodevelopmental outcome
Assessment beyond intelligence
! Baseline & long-term follow-up especially in the
context of development & disease process