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72 Cards in this Set

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What is a failed rift in a rift triple junction?
Aulocogen
Name an Aulocogen occuring today
The great rift valley in Africa. Between the red sea and gulf of aden
What are the dates of the cambrian
570 to 505 mybp
What first proposed Cratonic Sequences? And when
Sloss 1963
What was the first Cratonic sequence? What times did it last through
Sauk Cambrian through lower Ordovician
What is olenellus
A cambrian arthropod related to the trilobites.
What percentrage of life in the cambrian was trilbites?
About 60%
What percentrage of life in the cambrian was brachiopods?
30%
Describe the brachiopods of the cambrian
Look like clams but are inarticulate meaning they are not hinged.
What are Archaeocyathids
Similar to coral. Go extinct in the middle cambrian
Describe the molluscs of the cambrian
Found in deep waters of the coast of south america. Thought to have evolved from worms. Not common til ordovician
What is a cystoid
An echinoderm from the cambrian period
what kinds of organisms are notably missing from the cambrian period
Burrowing creatures, filter feeders, predators
What is the great experiment
The Burgess Shale. Lots of different phyla. Preserved because there was no oxygen
When was the ordovician
505 - 438 million years ago
Explain what happened in relation to sea level in the middle ordovician
During the late and middle ordovician began a regressive event. This separates the Sauk cratonic sequence from the Tippacanoe Sequence
What is the time period for the Tippecanoe Sequence
Middle Ordovician to Early Devonian
What is orogeny?
The process of mountain bulding
What did the Taconic orogeny produce and when was it
Mountains in the New England Eastern Canada area. Form the late cambrian to the early ordovician
What colors are the waters during the Later ordovician in Kansas and Ohio? What accounts for the differences in color
There was warm shallow water all across the continent. The water in Kansas was a turqouise and once you get to Ohio it turns to a deep indigo. This is because of a change from Carbonate to Shale
What are the red-beds of the Teconic Orogeny
These are areas of oxidized iron that developed in some of the only areas of North America that were above sea level. This happened on the Teconic plane.
Name two modern analogues of the Taconic Orogeny
Australia, Papua New Guinea
What are different about the brachiopods of the Ordovician?
The brachiopods of the ordovician are now articulate and are made of different material. They are now calcium carbonate vs. calcium phosphate
What are Bryozoans which time period did they show up?
Sicklike organisms that live in colonies in tiny holes similar to window screens. Live in shallow water. Ordovician
What are Crinoids and which time period did they show up?
Known as sea lillies. They are not plants but are related to starfish. Arms are really sticky. Live in shallow water. Ordovician
What are the creatures that made up the first true coral reefs and when did this happen?
Rugosids(Horn corals), Tabulates(Honeycomb), Stomatoporoids(Sponge like), Receptaculitea - Alge like, sunflower shaped
During the Ordovician there was an increase in predators. What are two of note that began to flourish
During the ordovician we had Cephalopods begin to develop and Starfish also became prominent.
What are Graptolites and when are they found?
They are found in the ordovician. They are important to the index fossil record. They are colony builders. They are often found in shales and slates
During what time did the vertebrates show up?
The ordovician
How did the Ordovician extinction event occur and when?
It occured about 445 mya. It is thought that an onset of an ice age induced it. At the time all life was still living in the sea. Half of all life died off during this extincition event making it the 2nd largest in earths historyu
What is the time period of the silurian
438-408 mya
What is the Acadian Orogeny?>
This is the Orogeny that created the Applachian Mountains
What is know about the rocks of the Silurian in North America?
There is not much Silurian stratigraphy in North America. Although the silurian is known as being chiefly Limestone
Why was the major type of rock in the Silurian limestone?
The limestone was laid down by large coral reefs created by now extinct species of coral Rugosids and
What are reefs that are built in shallow and deep water called respectively?
Barrier and Pinnacle
When and what did the regression of the Tippecanoe sequence cause?
The Tippecanoe regression began at the end of the Silurian beginning of the Devonian and it caused the huge evaporite deposits in the Michigan Basin area. The Michigan basin was surrounded by barrier reefs that restricted water movement and contributed to the evaporation of the water
List the common evaporite minerals in the order from least to most soluble
Calcite Gypsum Halite Potash
What is potash used for?
Fertilizer
What did the Tippecanoe deposit over North America
Well sorted quartz sandstone
What is the St. Peter sandstone?
The basal rock of the tippecanoe. Almost pure quartz sandstone. Used to create glass. Located over a large area of the N.A. craton
What are barrier reefs
They generally separate shallow waters from deep waters and are long and slender
Describe a pinnacle reef
Pinnacle reefs are tall spindly structures, up to 100M in height.
Explain how the evaporites came in the Michigan Basin
First we have a reefs that build up to cut off the flow of water. So there is less of an influx. So the sun evaporates the water leaving the evaporites more heavily concentrated. As the water level decreases more the reefs get higher and higher relatively and keep more and more water out. So it makes the static water more concentrated. Then the evaporites began to precipitate out in order of solubility. Thus we have Calcite, Gypsum, Halite, then Potash layers.
What is a Eurypterid
First developed in the Silurian. These were called sea scorpions. some reached up to 2M in length.
What are Lycopsids
These are part of the earliest land plants that existed. They have a more simple structure than plants do now. They had only one vein running through their leaves. They reproduce by shedding spores
What are the first land animals/
They are similar to millipedes. Then spiders, scorpions, etc showed up followed by amphibians in the Devonian
What are Acanthodians
These are fish that appeared during the Silurian that had both bony and cartiligenious features. They were the first known jawed vertebrates.
What happened to jawless fish during the Silurian
They rapidly developed and became very widespread
What is the time period of the devonian
408 - 360 mya
What happened at the beginning of the Devonian as far as sea level?
There was a major regression and the Tippacanoe came to an end. The Kaskia will dominate beginning in the mid devonian
What caused the early Devonian unconformity
With the regression of the Tippacanoe sequence, North America began to erode quickly.
What is and where is the Oriskany sandstone?
It is located in NY and PA. It is a deep resource of natural gas.
What happened when the Kaskia Sequence began?
There was a major transgression that created a large carbonate deposition
What animal created the Michigan Basin
Stromatoparoids
What is the Chattanooga Shale?
It is the poster child of black shales located in Tennessee
What are representative of black shales in the Devonian?
In the late devonian things change from limstone to shale. They formed in water areas with little movement. There were anerobic conditions at the bottom of the water and lots of plants on the top that died and fell to the bottom.
What is the climate like during the Devonian?
There is a warm/subtropical climate around the globe. Limestone reefs and similar plant life point to this.
When did sharks first appear?
Sharks first appeared during the Devonian. They have changed very little, but now grow to be larger.
What are placoderms?
These are large predator fish that lived in the devonian. They had cartilage skeltons and plate like teeth.
What is Dunkleosteus?
A giant placoderm. The king of the sea at the time. Grew to be up to 40 feet in length. Lived druing the devonian
When did lobe-finned fish begin to occur?
During the devonian
What are lobe-finned fish?
They have pectoral fins and bones in their fins. They evolved into amphibians
What are lungfish?
These arrived during the devonian and are around today. They can support their body on their pectoral fins. They are able to gulp and metabolize oxygen and travel short distances on their fins
What are coelacanths?
These are still alive today. They were thought to have been extinct in the Cretaceous, but one was caught off the coast of madagascar recently. They are closely related to lung fish
What are Crossopterygians
These lobe-finned fish are thought to be the ancestors of amphibians
What is Ichthyostega?
This is the first amphibian. It is kind of an inbetweener. But it began to develop a rib cage. Na elongated snout and fully fun ctional limbs
What are Sphenopsids?
This is a joint stem plant common during the devonian period
When did spore-bearing plants show up?
They first began in the Devonian near bodies of water.
When did the first seed ferns develop and why was this important?
They first developed in the devonian. This was important because it allowed plants to migrate and spread across the langscape. The first forests appear during this time.
What are ammonites?
They are closely related to nautiloids. They have a regulating tube to control water depth. They are used for fossil correlation
When did the first insects appear, what were they and what is interesting about them?
The first insects appear in the devoniuan. Millepeds, scorpions and spiders appear. These are all wingless insects.
What is devonian mass extinction?
This is the mass extinction event in the Devonian. 70% of marine invertebrates die out. 15% brachiopods survive. Almost all marine life gets scaled back. Climate shifts from green house to ice house conditions. Stromatoparoid reefs are devastated. Hydnoceras take over their niche. They are cone-shaped glass sponges.