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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the most common cancers for men?
What are the most common cancers for women?
What is the role of drug therapy in cancer?
Treatment for Disseminated cancers
Adjunct to surgery and irradiation for Localized Cancers
What is the major problem with chemotherapy?
Toxicity to normal dividing cells
What are some characteristics of cancer cells?
Persistant Proliferation
Invasive Growth
Formation of Metastases
What is a Matastase?
Secondary Tumor that appears at sites distant from the primary tumor
What causes cancer cells to have persistant proliferation?
Unresponsive to the feedback mechanisms that regulate cellular proliferation in healthy tissue
What give cancer cells immortality?
Telomerase becomes active permitting repeated division of DNA caps
What cause cancer?
Activation of oncogenes
Inactivation of tumor suppressor genes
What is the growth fraction?
The ration of proliferating cells to G0 cells (resting)
Chemotherapy drugs are more toxic to tissues with a low growth fraction than to tissues with a high growth fraction.
T or F
Chemotherapy drugs are very less toxic to tissues with a low growth fraction than to tissues with a high growth fraction.
Solid tumors have a (low/high) growth fraction while disseminated cancers have a (low/high) growth fraction.
What normal cells are anticancer drugs most toxic to?
High Growth Fraction Cells
Bone Marrow
GI epithelium
Hair Follicles
Germinal epithelium of the testes
Why are anticancer drugs toxic to high growth fraction normal cells?
Lack selective toxicity
What is needed to destroy cancer?
Eliminate every malignant cell from the body
Each round of therapy is the same dose with the same fraction of cancer cell loss
What are some difficulties of cancer chemotherapy?
Each round of therapy the dosage is the same with a constant percentage loss of cells
Anticancer drugs weaken immune function
No way of knowing when to stop therapy
What are some challenges of cancer detection?
Cancer is usually advanced by the time they are large enough to be discovered
May have already metastased
Early detection in cancer treatment is important.
T or F
Why are solid tumors less responsive to anticancer drugs?
G0 cells do not perform the activities that anticancer cells disrupt
What is the process of recruitment?
A solid tumor is reduced by surgery or irradiation and the cells leave G0 phase to start dividing again
Cancer therapy can develop resistance to the drugs.
T or F
Major cause of therapeutic failure
What drug transport protein and confer multiple drug resistance?
Are tumor cells are the same type of cell?
No, there may be subpopulations of dissimilar cells
Tumors can be difficult to treat due to location or blood supply.
T or F
How do cancer cells become drug resistant?
Spontaneous mutations that are not caused by the drug itself but drugs can offer selective pressure favoring mutant cells
What is the principle of intermittent therapy?
Normal cells have a chance to repopulate between rounds of therapy
Normal cells must grow faster than malignant cells
What are the benefits of combination therapy?
Suppression of drug resistance
Increased cancer cell kill
Reduced injury to normal cells
What are the guidelines for cancer chemotherapy drug selection?
Drugs should have different mechanisms of action with minimally overlapping toxicities
Why are dosing schedules critical in cancer therapy?
Drugs are cell phase specific
What are the major toxicities of chemotherapy?
Bone Marrow Suppression
Digestive Tract Injury
Nausea and Vomiting
What are the major effects of bone marrow suppresion?
Infection (Loss of neutrophils)
Bleeding (Loss of thrombocytes)
Anemia (Loss of erythrocytes)
What can help with the risk of infection?
Daily examination and cleaning of skin and oral cavity
Stay at home
Precautions to prevent nosocomial infection
What are the major effects of GI injury?
What is stomatitis?
Inflammation of oral cavity
What causes diarrhea in cancer chemotherapy patients?
Epithelial Lining is injured and fluid and solute absorption is impaired
What can reduce nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients?
Premedication with antiemetics
What is alopecia?
Hair Loss (injury to hair follicles)
Cancer therapy can cause reproductive toxicity.
T or F
Amenorrhea, Menopausal symptoms, and atrophy of vaginal epithelium
Irreversible sterility in males
What is Hyperuricemia?
Excessive level of uric acid in the blood from breakdown of DNA
Injury to the kidneys secondary to deposition of uric acid crystals in tubules
What are vesicants?
Cause severe local injury if they make direct contact with tissues
Cancer chemotherapy can cause cancer.
T or F
What must therapy offer for it to be justified?
Cure, Palliation, or Prolongation of Life
What is the Karnofsky Performance Scale?
General Health Status is assessed by this scale