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76 Cards in this Set

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Define: Acid
1. A compound yielding a hydrogen ion in a polar solvent (in water); acids form salts by replacing all or part of the ionizable hydrogen with an electropositive element or radical.
2. Colloquially, any chemical compound that has a sour taste (given by the hydrogen ion).
Define: Anasarca
A generalized infiltration of edema fluid into subcutaneous connective tissue.
Define: Anion
An ion that carries a negative charge
Define: Ascites
Accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
Define: base
Cations, or substances forming cations.
A substance the pH of which is over 7.0, in contrast to an acid.
Define: Buffer
Reduces any changes in pH that would otherwise occur in the solution when acid or alkali is added to it
Define: cation
An ion carrying a charge of positive electricity, therefore going to the negatively charged cathode.
Define: dehydration
Dehydration is the loss of water and salts essential for normal body function.
Define: diffusion
1. The random movement of molecules or ions or small particles in solution or suspension under the influence of brownian (thermal) motion toward a uniform distribution throughout the available volume; the rate is relatively rapid among liquids and gases, but takes place very slowly among solids.
2. Light scattering.
Define: Edema
1. An accumulation of an excessive amount of watery fluid in cells or intercellular tissues.
2. At the gross level, used to describe the physical sign commonly likened to swelling or increased girth that often accompanies the accumulation of fluid in a body part, most often a limb.
Define: electrolyte
1. Any compound that, in solution or in molten form, conducts electricity and is decomposed (electrolyzed) by it.
2. An ionizable substance in solution.
Define: Feedback
1. In a given system, the return, as input, of some of the output, as a regulatory mechanism; regulation of a furnace by a thermostat.
Define: Filtration
1. The process of passing a liquid or gas through a filter.
Define: hypertonic
Having a greater osmotic pressure than a reference solution, which is ordinarily assumed to be blood plasma or interstitial fluid; more specifically, refers to a fluid in which cells shrink.
Define: hypotonic
Having a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution, which is ordinarily assumed to be blood plasma or interstitial fluid; more specifically, refers to a fluid in which cells would swell.
Define: Insensible
Not appreciable by the senses.
Define: interstitial
Relating to spaces within a tissue or organ, but excluding such spaces as body cavities or potential space.
Define: intravascular
Within the blood vessels or lymphatics.
Define: ion
An atom or group of atoms carrying an electric charge by virtue of having gained or lost one or more electrons. Ions may exist in solid, liquid, or gaseous environments, although those in liquid (electrolytes) are more common and familiar.
Define: isotonic
Having equal tension; denoting solutions possessing the same osmotic pressure
Define: osmosis
The process by which solvent tends to move through a semipermeable membrane from a solution of lower to a solution of higher osmolal concentration of the solutes to which the membrane is relatively impermeable.
Define: permeability
The property of being permeable
Define: salt
1. A compound formed by the interaction of an acid and a base, the ionizable hydrogen atoms of the acid are replaced by the positive ion of the base.
Define: solute
The dissolved substance in a solution.
Define: solvent
A liquid that holds another substance in solution, dissolves it.
Acronyms: ABG'S
An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery.
Acronyms: ADH
Antidiuretic Hormone A relatively small (peptide) molecule that is released by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain after being made nearby (in the hypothalamus). ADH has an antidiuretic action that prevents the production of dilute urine (and so is antidiuretic).
Acronyms: ANP
Atrial natriuretic peptide is a powerful vasodilator, and a protein (polypeptide) hormone secreted by heart muscle cells.
Acronyms: Ca++
CALCIUM a chemical element, at. no. 20. Calcium phosphate salts form the dense hard material of teeth and bones. The calcium 2+ ion is involved in many physiologic processes. A normal blood calcium level is essential for normal function of the heart, nerves, and muscles. It is involved in blood coagulation (in which connection it is called coagulation factor IV )
Acronyms: Ca3(PO4)2
calcium PHOSPHATE a salt containing calcium and the phosphate radical: dibasic and tribasic c. phosphate are used as sources of calcium.
Acronyms: CaCO3
calcium Bicarbonate insoluble salt, CaCO3, occurring naturally in shells, limestone, and chalk and also used in more purified forms; used as an antacid and calcium replenisher and in the treatment of osteoporosis.
Acronyms: Cl-
chlorine an insoluble salt, CaCO3
Acronyms: CSF
cerebrospinal fluid the fluid contained within the ventricles of the brain, the subarachnoid space, and the central canal of the spinal cord.
Acronyms: ECF
All fluid outside of cells, usually excluding transcellular fluid.
Acronyms: Fe++
Acronyms: GI
The digestive organs and structures, including the stomach and intestines.
Define: negative feedback
(in physiology) a decrease in function in response to a stimulus. For example, the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone decreases as the amount of circulating estrogen increases.
Define: Positive Feedback
(in physiology) an increase in function in response to a stimulus. For example, micturition increases after the flow of urine has started, and the uterus contracts more frequently and with greater strength after it has begun to contract in labor.
Define: Hypovolmic shock
shock due to insufficient blood volume, either from hemorrhage or other loss of fluid or from widespread vasodilation so that normal blood volume cannot maintain tissue perfusion; symptoms are like those of cardiogenic shock.
Define: RAA
(renin-angiotensin system)
the regulation of sodium balance, fluid volume, and blood pressure. In response to reduced perfusion, renin is secreted, which hydrolyzes a plasma globulin to release angiotensin I, which is rapidly hydrolyzed to angiotensin II, a powerful vasoconstrictor; angiotension II also stimulates aldosterone secretion, which causes sodium retention, an increase in blood pressure, and restoration of renal perfusion, which shuts off the signal for renin release (negative feedback). Angiotensin-converting enzyme also deactivates bradykinin, a vasodilator. Also called renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system
Define: Overhydration
Overhydration, also called water excess or water intoxication, is a condition in which the body contains too much water.
Define: passive transport
the movement of small molecules across the membrane of a cell by diffusion. Passive transport occurs when the chemicals outside a cell become concentrated and start moving into the cell, changing the intracellular equilibrium. Passive transport is essential to various processes of metabolism, such as the intake of digestive products by the cells lining the intestines
Define: Diffusion
the spontaneous movement of molecules or other particles in solution, owing to their random thermal motion, to reach a uniform concentration throughout the solvent, a process requiring no addition of energy to the system.
ECF is composed primarily of
Interstitial and intravascular fluids
A chemical system set up to resist changes, particularly in the level of ph, is
a buffer
water moves across a semipermeable membrane via which process?
to balance water output, an average adult must have fluid intake of:
2000-4000 mL per day
the primary organs involved in pH regulation are
Kidneys and lungs
T or F
A positively charged ion is konwn as a cation
T or F
Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration
Diffusion is the random movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
T or F
A salt is created when the negative ions of a base replace the positive oxygen ions of an acid
A salt is created when the positive ions of a base replace the positive hydrogen ions of an acid
T or F
A vesicle transports large molecules or whole cells across the plasma membrane
T or F
Oxygen is the main component of the pH system of the body
Hydrogen is the main component of the pH system of the body
T or F
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons is called an ion
T or F
Electrolytes are substance that dissociate in water into ions
______ is the Dynamic process through which t he body maintains balance by constantly adjusting to internal and external stimuli
________ feedback occurs when the body reverses an original stimulus to regain physiological homeostasis
Intravascular fluid is the watery fluid of the blood known as _________.
With a decrease in blood volume, _____ is released by the kidneys.
_______ is an excess of water in the body.
A ______ is the substance dissolved in a solvent
The process of _____ involves the dissociation of compounds into their respective ions
The ability of a membrane to allow molecules to pass through is known as _____
What are the two main compartments of body fluid?
ICF intracellular fluid and ECF extracellular fluid
What are the features of extracellular fluid (ECF)?
ECF is fluid outside cells and constitutes one third of the total body fluid
When is ADH released from the posterior pituitary gland?
ADH is released from the posterior pituitary gland in response to conditions within the cardiovascular system, such as low blood blood volume or increased concentration of sodium in blood plasma
What causes renin to be released by the kidneys
Decrease in blood volume causes renin to be released by the kidneys
Which form of passive transport does the figure indicate
the figure indicates diffusion
What are the principle causes of edema?
1.Obstruction of venous blood or lymphatic return
2.increased capillary permeability or pressure
3.external pressure
4.inflammatory reactions
5.loss of the proteins in the plasma of the blood
What is ionization?
the process by which compounds dissociate into their respective ions
What are the factors on which permeability of membranes depends?
1.size of membrane pores
2.Osmotic pressure
3.hydrostatic pressure
4.electrical charge of molecule
6.body fluid
7.solubility and size of sodium
Which are the important salts in the body?
Sodium Chloride NaCl
Potassium Chloride KCl
Calcium Chloride CaCl2
Calcium Phosphate Ca3(PO4)2
Sodium sulfate Na2SO4
What is homeostasis?
Homeostasis is the dynamic process through which the body maintains balance by constantly adjusting to internal and external stimuli
What are the functions of intracellular fluid ICF?
The functions of ICF are the following:
1.Stabilizing agent for the cell
2.helps maintain cell shape
3.assists with transport of nutrients across the cell membrane
4.assists with transport of nutrients in and out of the cell
The nurse should list the following as some of the causes of dehydration?
Diarrhea, vomitting , excessive heat and sweating, GI suction, hemmorhage, excessive use of diuretics, lowered fluid intake, certain medications, certain diseases (diabetes, addison's disease)
When caring for older adults, the nurse should be aware of the following effects of aging on fluid and electrolyte balance?
Intracellular fluid levels decrease, thirst sensation declines, and hydration is common, nutrional habits,exercise and weight gain occur, activity levels influence body fluid levels