Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/101

Click to flip

101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
chemistry
the study of matter
matter
anything htat has mass and takes up space
element
a substance the cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical reactions; a pure substance
trace element and exs
elements required by an organism in only minute quantities or a catastrpohic event
Iron-Fe-anemia
Iodine-I
anemia
lack of iron in the body; symptoms-paleness, tired, shortness of breath, blue lips
Iodine
only needed by vertebrates as an essential ingredient for the thyroid gland to make the hormone thyroxine
iron
needed by all life forms
atom
the smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element; million would be needed to stretch across the period @ the end of a typed sentence
protons
one unit of a positive charge; 1 amu; 1.7 x 10 to the -24 grams
neutrons
neutral charge; 1 amu
electrons
located in the energy field around the nucleus; has a negative charge; has a mass of 1/2000 od a proton or neutron
atomic #
all atoms of a particular element have the same # of protons in their nuclei; # of protons is known as the atomic #
mass #
the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus;
atomic weight
approximations of total mass of an atoms; usually have the weight of pen, but don't have to
ion
an atom with a negative and positive charge; only change electron
isotope
when atoms of an element have a dif. # of neutrons; give them dif. atomic weight
radioactive isotope
nucleus of an isotope is unstable; this causes the nucleus to decay spontaneously, giving off particles of energy and subatomic particles; changes element; unpredicatable
compound
substance consisting of 2+ elements combined in a fixed ratio
ex: 1:2:1
C6H12O6
chemical bond
the force of attraction between 2+ atoms that hold them together
ionic bonding
when 1+ electrons are transferred from one atom to aother; creates ions
covalent bonding
when atoms share electrons to form molecules
single covalent bond
atoms sharing 1 pair of electrons
double covalent bond
atoms sharing 2 pairs of electrons;=
triple covalent bond
atoms sharing 3 pairs of electrons
types of scans
list
MRI, CT, PET
molecule
two or more atoms held together by a covalent bond
diatomic molecule
2 of the same elements that combine to form a milecule
ex. Cl2, F2, N2 O2
structural formula
shows relations of atoms
0=0
chemiccal /molecular formula
gives atoms present and a ratio
ex: 1:2:1
acid
a substance that will increase the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
ex: H+
acid rain
uncomtaminated rain that has a pH of about 5.6, slightly acidic, owing to the formation of carbonic acid from CO2 and H2O
When fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas)are burned, they release sulfur oxide and nitrous oxides into the air. These gaseous compounds mix with the rainwater and produce strong acids, which falls to the Earth as rain or snow
Winds carry pollutants away, so aicd rain usually occurs thousands of miles away from the factories and cities
base
a substance that reduces the ydrogen ion concentration of a solution of release OH-;
any compound that produces a hydroxide ion (OH-) when dissolved in a solution (water);
when a substance is basic, known as ALKALINE
NaOH --> Na+ + OH- (the fact that it produces OH- makes it a base)
self-ioinization of water
when an acid and a base are present in equaly amounts
neutralization
the process fo reacting an acid with a base to produce a neutral substance
caustic
damagin
salt
the ionic compound producedby the neutralization reaction between an acid and a base
indicators
a substance that changes color when the pH of a substance goes above or below a certain value
types of indicators:
red litmus paper-->blue in base
blue -->red in acid
methyl orange-->yellow-->red in strong (<3) acid
phenolphthalein-->colorless-->fuchia in basic (>10)
Bromthymol Blue (BTB)--> blue--> yellow (small acidic solutions)
pH paper
buffer
substances that minimize changes in the concentrations of hydrogent and hydroxide ions in a solution (help maintain blood close to 7.4)
buffer list
sodium bicarbonate-->buffer acids
carbonic acid-->buffer bases-->make bases less basic
exception of pH in body
stomach-->has musuc lining
organic compound
always has carbon, usually hydrogen, may oxygen and nitrogen
a compound that contains the element carbon; most occur naturally in living organisms or their by-products; covalent bonds and non-polar
inorganic
most impt: H20; no carbon except for C02 and CaCO3
properites of water list
cohesion, adhesion, polar
cohesion
the force of attraction between molecules of the same substance-->water likes water-->the molecules try to get back together
adhesion
the attraction between the molecules of one substance that are attracted to molecules of a different substance; allows dissolving to occur; ex: HCl dissolving in H20; what allows water to travel from ground to leaves of tree-->capillary action
polar molecule
one end of the molecule is more negatively charged than the other end; "Opposties attract"
hydrophilic
any substance that has an affinity for a water molecule
ex: food coloring
ploar <--> polar
affinity
attraction
hydrophobic
any substance that does not have an affinity for water or is repelled by it
ex: oil, fats
polar <--> non-polar
polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
exs of polymers
carbs, proteins, nucleic acid
monomer
the repeating subunits that serve as the building blocks of a polymerl some of the molecules that serve as monomers also have other functions of their own (lipids)
dehydrations synthesis
the process by which monomers connect to other polymers/monomers to form polymers; removing H20
hydrolysis
adding H20; polymers are broken down into monomers by a reverse reaction called hydrolysis
carbohydrate
an organic compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen
monosaccharide
simplest carb; "simple sugar"
isomer
a compound that has the same chamical formula but a different structural formula
-ose
what most sugars USUALLY end in; glucose, fructose, galactose
exceptions to -ose
starch, chitin
adhesion
the attraction between the molecules of one substance that are attracted to molecules of a different substance; allows dissolving to occur; ex: HCl dissolving in H20; what allows water to travel from ground to leaves of tree-->capillary action
polar molecule
one end of the molecule is more negatively charged than the other end; "Opposties attract"
hydrophilic
any substance that has an affinity for a water molecule
ex: food coloring
ploar <--> polar
affinity
attraction
hydrophobic
any substance that does not have an affinity for water or is repelled by it
ex: oil, fats
polar <--> non-polar
polymer
a long molecule consisting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
exs of polymers
carbs, proteins, nucleic acid
monomer
the repeating subunits that serve as the building blocks of a polymerl some of the molecules that serve as monomers also have other functions of their own (lipids)
dehydrations synthesis
the process by which monomers connect to other polymers/monomers to form polymers; removing H20
hydrolysis
adding H20; polymers are broken down into monomers by a reverse reaction called hydrolysis
carbohydrate
an organic compound made up of hydrogen and oxygen
monosaccharide
simplest carb; "simple sugar"
isomer
a compound that has the same chamical formula but a different structural formula
-ose
what most sugars USUALLY end in; glucose, fructose, galactose
exceptions to -ose
starch, chitin
mono
1
di
2
poly
many; 3+
disaccharide
the molecule formed by joining 2 simple sugars (monosaccharies) by dehydration synthesis
exs of disaccharides
maltose (malt sugar in beer)-->glucose + glucose
sucrose (table sugar)-->glucose + fructose
lactose (milk suagar)-->glucose + galactose
glycosidic bond
how simple sugars are held together; a covalent bond formed betweend 2 monosaccharides by a hydration reaction
polysaccharide
a few hundred --> a few thousand simple sugars bonded together through dehydration synthesis to create a chain of repeating subunites with gyycosidic bonds
function of polysaccharides
provide stored energy; building material to provide structure to cell
storage polysaccharide list
starch, glycogen
starch
a polymer consisting of glucose monomers that forms a helix shape is stored energy in plants (released by hydrolysis)
glycogen
a polymer of glucose that acts as stored energy in animals; Humans store in liver and muscle cells; hydrolysis of glycogen releases glucose to be made availabe when sugar demand increases; only last for 1 day, then fats starts to burn
structural polysaccharide list
cellulose, chitin
cellulose
the polysaccharide plants produce to build strong materials (cell walls); polymer of glucose monomersl impt. form of fiber in diet to prevent constipation--> enzyme to break fown cellulose-->not possessed by humans;
ex: outer shell of corn, celery stuff that you just chew and chew; cows have bacteria in gut that helps them break down cellulose in grass
chitin
the polysaccharide used by arthropods (spiders, insects --> anything with exoskeleton) for formation of exoskeleton; polymer made from monomer of glucose with added nitrogen to molecules
lipid
an organic compound made up of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
function of lipids:
part of cell structure and serve as reserve energy-->insulin or act as protective coating (ear wax); nonpolar; less O2 atoms in lipids than carbs; hydrophobic
synthesis of fat
a molecule of fat is formed by the dehydration synthesis of 3 fatty acid molecules and 1 glucose molecule
fatty acid
a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen atoms are bonded, a carboxyl group is also present
carboxyl group
=0
C`OH
saturated fats
fats that are formed from fatty acids that have a single to single carbon bond
ex: solid @ room temp.; butter, lard; most fats from animals tend to be saturated fats execpt coconut
unsaturated fats
one pair of carbon atoms are joined by a double bond/triple bond of the fatty acid that makes up the fat ex: liquid @ room temperature, olive oil, cod liver oil, tend to be from plants and fish
polysaturated fats
a fat that has fatty acid chains with more than one double to triple bond
diets high in saturated fats are worse because they...
...stick to blood vessels
...tend to raise cholesterol levels, which increase risk for stroke and heart attacks
cholesterol
a solid oject in the human body; C27H46 O; occurs in all animal cells and body fluids; orignates in body (mainly in liver) or from animal fats<--meat, fish, milk, eggs, cheese or butter
HDL
high density lipoprotein; held to transport cholesterol back to liver for excretions and thought that more HDL, better overall health would be; good cholesterol
LDL
bad cholesterol; low density lipoproteins;carries triglycerides and cholesterol to other body cells