Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
LI (leverage index): A measure of how important a particular situation is in a baseball game depending on the inning, score, outs, and number of players on base, created by Tom Tango.
An average (or neutral) LI is one, high leverage is 1.5 and above, and low leverage is below one. 10% of all real game situations have a LI greater than 2, while 60% have a LI less than 1.
A player’s average LI for all game events.
A batter’s average LI in only pinch hit events.
A pitcher’s average LI when he enters the game.
A pitcher’s average LI at the start of each inning.
A pitcher’s average LI when exiting the game.
On-base Plus Slugging Plus (OPS+) is a more informative metric than OPS. This statistic normalizes a player’s OPS – it adjusts for small variables that might affect OPS score (e.g. park effect) and puts the statistic on an easy-to-understand scale. A 100 OPS+ is league average, and each point up or down is one percentage point above or below league average. In other words, if a player had a 90 OPS+ last season, that means their OPS was 10% below league average. Also, since OPS+ adjusts for league and park effects, it’s possible to use OPS+ to compare players from different years and on different teams.
True Average (formerly Equivalent Average). A measure of total offensive value per out, with corrections for league offensive level, home park, and team pitching.

TAV considers batting as well as baserunning, but not the value of a position player's defense. The TAv adjusted for all-time also has a correction for league difficulty. The scale is deliberately set to approximate that of batting average. League average TAv is always equal to .260.

Equation: 1993 and beyond
TAv = 0.260 + (Runs Above Average/Plate Appearances)*0.9
Intentional walks
Sacrifice hits
Weighted On-Base Average combines all the different aspects of hitting into one metric, weighting each of them in proportion to their actual run value.

It combines the insights of OBP (how good a batter is at getting on base) with the insights of SLG (how good a batter is at hitting for power), but it also properly weights each outcome, and is therefore superior to non-weighted stats like OPS and OPS+.
Isolated Power (ISO) is a measure of a hitter's raw power, in terms of extra bases per AB. Its formula is ISO = (2B + (3B*2) + (HR*3)) / AB

In PECOTA, ISO is one of five primary production metrics used in identifying a hitter or pitcher's comparables. PECOTA uses a slightly modified version of Isolated Power that assigns the same value to triples as to doubles (extending a double into a triple is generally an indicator of speed, rather than additional power). Thus, the formula for PECOTA isolated power as follows: ISO = (2B + 3B + (HR*3)) / AB
Batting Average on Balls In Play

A pitcher's average on batted balls ending a plate appearance, excluding home runs. Based on the research of Voros McCracken and others, BABIP is mostly a function of a pitcher's defense and luck, rather than persistent skill. Thus, pitchers with abnormally high or low BABIPs are good bets to see their performances regress to the mean. The league average for modern pitcher BABIP is around .300.

Hitter BABIP is much more of a skill, based on how well they are able to hit and place the ball, along with their speed.


BABIP = (H - HR) / (AB - K - HR + SF)