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86 Cards in this Set

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Which two components of the Basal Ganglia are referred to as the "Corpus Striatum?"
Caudate and Putamen
There are 5 structures that make up the basal ganglia. Name them.
1. Caudate nucleus
2. Putamen
3. Globus Pallidus
4. Subthalamic nucleus
5. Substantia Nigra
The lenticulate nucleus is made up of which two structures?
1. Globus Pallidus
2. Putamen
What are the two divisions of the substantia nigra?
pars reticulata
pars compacta
T/F: Basal ganglia have direct access to spinal cord motor neurons.
FALSE: They must use the thalamus as a "mediator"
Basal Ganglia structures in relation to the internal capsule: The _________ is located medial to the anterior limb of the internal capsule
head of the caudate nucleus
Basal Ganglia structures in relation to the internal capsule: The thalamus is ___________ (med/lat) to the posterior limb of the Internal Capsule.
Medial
Basal Ganglia structures in relation to the internal capsule: The putamen and globus pallidus are __________ to the genu and anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule
lateral to the genu and A & P limbs of the internal capsule
Basal Ganglia structures in relation to the ventricular system: The ______________ forms the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle
head and body of the caudate nucleus
Basal Ganglia structures in relation to the ventricular system: The ______________ passes in the roof of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle.
tail of the caudate nucleus
Which basal ganglia structure forms the lateral walls of the third ventricle?
Thalami
Basal Ganglia Circuitry:
The _________ connects the cortex afferents to the caudate and putamen.
Internal and External capsule
Basal Ganglia Circuitry:
The lenticular fasciculus runs between the ___1________ and ____2____. The last structure runs directly to the ____3_____.
1. globus pallidus
2. thalamic fasciculus.
3. Thalamus
Which basal ganglia structure is the principal player in determining proper movement?
Subthalamic Nucleus
Afferent fibers to the subthalamic nucleus come from? Efferent fibers from the subthalamic nucleus go to?
Afferents: GPe (external segment of globus pallidus)
Efferents: GPi (internal segment of the globus pallidus)
Which basal ganglia structure can be functionally lumped together with the globus pallidus?
SNr (substantia nigra, pars reticulata). Common fiber projection to the thalamus.
What is the function of the substantia nigra, pars compacta?
The SNc has dopamininergic neurons: it is an important source of afferents to the caudate and putamen.
What are the two structures that send afferent fibers to the caudate and putamen (corpus striatum)?
1. Cortex
2. SNc (substantia nigra, pars compacta)
The striatum influences the globus pallidus via 2 pathways: name them and describe their course.
1. Direct pathway -> striatum to GPi (internal segment of globus pallidus)
2. Indirect pathway -> striatum to GPe to Subthalamic nucleus to GPi.
Levels of activity within the subthalamic nucleus appear to be key in controlling _________________.
the initiation of movement
All output from the striatum can be classified as __________.
Inhibitory (via GABA)
D1 receptors are ___________ and are mainly associated with which pathway? What about D2 receptors?
D1 -> inhibitory, associated with indirect pathway
D2 -> excitatory, associated with direct pathway
What type of interneurons does the striatum contain? are they (+) or (-)?
cholinergic interneurons (use acetylcholine). (+)
Define:
1. akinesia
2. rigidity
3. tremors
1. loss of the power of voluntary movement. slow to initiate movement
2. resistance to passive movement, stiffness
3. involuntary trembling
Define:
1. Chorea
2. Athetosis
3. Ballism
1. dance-like involuntary mvmts. of the limbs
2. slow involuntary writhing mvmnt. of fingers & hands.
3. violent jerking or shaking mvmnt. of the limbs
Parkinson's disease is caused by ______________. Describe the state of a brain afflicted with PD.
intrastriatal dopamine depletion.
nigro-striatal dopaminergic projections degenerate, pars compacta depigmented.
What type of reflexes would a patient with PD have?
Normal reflexes
Huntington's disease is caused by ___________. What is observed in this brain?
caused by intrastriatal GABA depletion due to degeneration of the striatum. Cortical atrophy is observed
Describe the activity of the subthalamic nucleus in a PD patient versus an HD patient
PD -> subthalamic nuclei neurons are more active
HD -> subthalamic nuclei neurons are less active
What would cause hemiballismus?
a subthalamic stroke. One subthalamic nucleus is obliterated resulting in contralateral hemiballismus
What is the inheritance of Huntington's disease?
autosomal dominant
The thalamus can be divided into 3 main portions when viewed from above. Name them. What separates these?
1. Anterior
2. Medial
3. Lateral
internal medullary lamina separates the portions. (white matter)
When the thalamus is viewed from the lateral side there are 5 divisions in the ventral tier. Name them.
1. Medial Geniculate Body
2. Lateral Geniculate Body
3. Ventral Posterior Nucleus
4. Ventral Lateral Nucleus
5. Ventral Anterior Nucleus
The medial geniculate body mediates _________ afferents, while the lateral geniculate nucleus mediates ______ efferents.
auditory
visual
Which portion of the thalamus are the VPL and VPM found in?
Ventral Posterior Nucleus
In which portion of the thalamus are cerebellum efferents and basal ganglia afferents found?
VLN (Ventral Lateral Nucleus)
In which portion of the thalamus are some of the basal ganglia afferents found?
VAN (Ventral Anterior Nucleus)
In which portion of the thalamus are somatosensory afferents found?
VPN (Ventral Posterior Nucleus)
Why has the cerebellum been called a "comparator?"
Because it compensates for errors in voluntary mvmnts. by comparing intention (from cortex) with performance (from ascending sensory systems)
Where is the vermis of the cerebellum found?
In the midline (vermis means worm, therefore the vermis looks like a worm)
There are 3 lobes of the cerebellum. Name them
1. Anterior lobe
2. Posterior lobe
3. Flocculonodular lobe
Which fissure separates the anterior lobe from the posterior lobe in the cerebellum?
The primary fissure
Which fissure separates the posterior lobe from the flocculonodular node?
The posterolateral fissure
The inferior cerebellar peduncle connects the __________ to the cerebellum.
medulla and spinal cord
The middle cerebellar peduncle connects the _________ to the cerebellum.
basilar (ventral) pons
The superior cerebellar peduncle connects the cerebellum to the ________.
midbrain and thalamus
Which cerebellar peduncles contain efferent and afferent fibers?
1. Inferior and Middle Peduncles -> afferent
2. Superior peduncle -> efferent
The cerebellum is divided into 3 functional subdivisions. Name them
1. vestibulocerebellum (flocculonodular lobe)
2. spinocerebellum (medial)
3. cerebrocerebellum (lateral)
What is the function of the vestibulocerebellum?
governs eye movements and equilibrium during stance and gait
What is the function of the spinocerebellum?
controls posture and gross coordination
What is the function of the cerebrocerebellum?
coordinates refined or skilled movements
A lesion in which portion of the cerebellum would result in nystagmus?
vestibulocerebellum - lesion manifests as vestibular symptoms
What is the arbor vitae?
"tree of life," the internal white matter of the cerebellum
There are 3 cortical layers of the cerebellum. Name them from outside to in.
1. Molecular layer (mostly fibers)
2. Purkinje cell layer
3. Granule cell layer
There are 4 pairs of deep nuclei in the cerebellum. Name them from lateral to medial.
1. Dentate
2. Emboliform
3. Globose
4. Fastigal
"Don't Eat Greasy Food"
Which 2 deep nuclei of the cerebellum are often combined and known as "interposed nuclei?"
emboliform and globose nuclei
Which nuclei of the cerebellum are associated with the spinocerebellum? How about the cerebrocerebellum?
Spinocerebellum -> Emboliform, Globose, Fastigal
Cerebrocerebellum -> Dentate
A cerebellar hemisphere recieves ascending sensory information from the ___________ side of the body. (ipsi/contra)
ipsilateral
A cerebellar hemisphere recieves motor command information from the __________ cortex. (ipsi/contra)
contralateral
it is then relayed and decussates at the pons.
a cerebellar hemisphere sends information back to the _______ motor cortex via the thalamus. (ipsi/contra)
contralateral
a cerebellar hemisphere is responsible for regulation of movement on the ________ side of the body. (ipsi/contra)
ipsilateral
Name the 2 cerebellar afferent pathways to the cerebrocerebellum.
1. pontocerebellar fibers
2. olivocerebellar fibers
How do pontocerebellar fibers get to the cerebrocerebellum? What kind of information do they carry?
via the middle cerebellar peduncle. they carry information from sensory and motor cortices.
the pontocerebellar fibers recieve information from the cortex __________, then they project fibers _________ to the cerebrocerebellum. (ipsi/contra)
recieve ipsilaterally
project contralaterally
What information do the olivocerebellar fibers transmit?
info from spinal cord, brainstem and cortical sources
Describe the pathway of the olivocerebellar fibers.
from inferior olivary nucleus (which recieves and integrates info) to the contralateral cerebellar cortex via the inferior cerebellar peduncle
There are 5 afferent pathways that end in the spinocerebellum. Name them.
1. DSCT
2. Cuneocerebellar tract
3. VSCT
4. Olivocerebellar fibers
5. Trigeminocerebellar fibers
The DSCT, cuneocerebellar, olivocerebellar and trigeminocerebellar all project to the spinocerebellum via the ____________.
inferior cerebellar peduncle
The VSCT projects to the spinocerebellum via the ____________.
superior cerebellar peduncle
There are 2 pathways that project onto the vestibulocerebellum. Name them.
1. vestibulocerebellar fibers
2. olivocerebellar fibers
There are two kinds of vestibulocerebellar fibers. What are they called and what is the difference?
1. primary vestibulocerebellar afferents bypass vestibular nuclei & go directly to cerebellum. Secondary vestibulocerebellar afferents go through the nuclei
How do the vestibulocerebellar fibers project to the vestibulocerebellum?
via the juxtarestiform body
Purkinje cells are ___________(+) or (-). Which neurotransmitter do they release?
(-) inhibitory
release GABA
Purkinje cells are large: they are the primary way from the ____________ to the _____________.
cerebellar cortex to the deep nuclei
Purkinje neurons of the flocculonodular lobe project to the _____________ via the _____________.
lateral vestibular nucleus
juxtarestiform body
Climbing fibers come from the ___________ and are ___ (+) or (-) to Purkinje cells and deep nuclei.
inferior olive
(+)
Mossy fibers come from __________ and are (+) to the ________ and _________.
everywhere but the inferior olive
deep nuclei and granule cells
The fastigal nucleus recieves input from the Purkinje neurons and projects ____1___ to the ____2____ via the ___3_____.
1. bilaterally
2. vestibular complex
3. juxtarestiform body
The Globose, Emboliform & Dentate nuclei all recieve input from Purkinje cells and project to the ____1____ and _____2____ via the ______3__.
1. red nucleus
2. ventrolateral thalamic nucleus
3. superior cerebellar peduncle
Define: ataxia
inability to coordinate the muscles in voluntary movement (catch all term)
Define: past pointing
a systemic drift (to one side) of a directed movement. This is a vestibulocerebellar symptom
What type of tremor is specific to cerebellar disorders?
intention tremor
Define: dysmetria
inability to stop a mvmt at a desired point. (reach for coffee cup on table can't stop)
Define: decomposition of movements
movements broken down into its constituent parts
Define: dysdiadochokinesia
inability to perform rapid alternating movements
What is masking of cerebellar signs?
When there is a lesion in a cerebellar pathway but it is hidden in a CST lesion. (ie. paralysis)