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33 Cards in this Set

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Five (or seven) primary components of the basal ganglia?
1. Caudate, 2. putamen, 3.globus pallidus, 4.subthalamic nucleus, 5.substantia nigra, 6.(nucleus accumbens), and 7.(ventral pallidum)
Components of striatum
caudate + putamen
Input nuclei of the basal ganglia
caudate and putamen (aka striatum)
Components of the lenticular/lentiform nucleus
globus pallidus and putamen
What is the primary blood supply to the basal ganglia?
Middle cerebral artery via lenticulostriate branches
Anatomically, caudate and putamen are always _______ to the internal capsule while lentiform nuclei are _____ to the internal capsule.
medial, lateral
What are the four functional parallel pathways within the basal ganglia?
1. Eye movements
2. Cognitive functions
3. Emotional functions
4. General motor control
The most important input nucleus for motor control pathways is the _____
putamen
Inputs to the basal ganglia are ______ (inhibitory vs excitatory) and utilize ______ as the primary neurotransmitter.
Inputs to the basal ganglia are excitatory and utilize glutamate as the primary neurotransmitter.
Cerebral cortex is a primary __________(input to/output of) the basal ganglia.
Cerebral cortex is a primary INPUT to the basal ganglia.
The most important input nucleus of the basal ganglia is the _______.
The most important input nucleus of the basal ganglia is the PUTAMEN.
Are most cortical inputs to the basal ganglia excitatory or inhibitory?
Most cortical inputs to the basal ganglia are excitatory.
Other, non-cortical input to the basal ganglia include:
1. Striosomes
2. Thalamic nuclei (intralaminar)
3. Brainstem raphe nuclei with serotonergic input
Cortical inputs to the striatum use which neurostransmitter?
Cortical inputs to the striatum are excitatory and use glutamte.
Output nuclei for the basal ganglia
Globus pallidus & substantia nigra pars reticulata
Basal ganglia output pathways are _________
Basal ganglia output pathways are INHIBITORY
Basal ganglia output pathways use which neurotransmitter?
GABA
Primary thalamic nuclei targeted for basal ganglia output
Ventral lateral & ventral anterior
Basic output pathway for basal ganglia
Basal ganglia-thalamus (VA & VL nuclei)- frontal lobe
Basal ganglia output and body parts:
Substantia nigra output responsible for ___________
Globus pallidus responsible for ____________
Substantia nigra = head and neck
Globus pallidus = rest of body
Secondary basal ganglia output targets to thalamus
Intralaminar nuclei
Mediodorsal nucleus
Direct pathway of basal ganglia
Striatum-globus pallidus internal or substantia nigra
Indirect pathway of basal ganglia
Striatum- globus pallidus external - subthalamic nucleus - globus pallidus internal or
substantia nigra
Net effect of direct pathway of the basal ganglia is __________ while the indirect pathway has a ____________ effect
Direct: excitatory
Indirect: inhibitory
Primary neurotransmitter for direct and indirect BG pathways
GABA
Loss of dopamine in Parkinson’s leads to a net ________ effect of the thalamus
Loss of dopamine in Parkinson’s leads to a net INHIBITORY effect of the thalamus
Dopamine _______________ neurons of the direct pathway and _______________ the indirect pathway, with a new effect of _________________ on thalamus.
Dopamine EXCITES neurons of the direct pathway and INHIBITS the indirect pathway, with a new effect of EXCITATION on thalamus.
Typical cause of hemiballismus
Subthalamic nucleus damage (reduced inhibition of thalamus)
Contents of motor channel of basal ganglia
Cortex-putamen-Globus Pallidus internal/subst nigra reticulata- thalamus (VL, VA)-motor cortices
Contents of oculomotor channel of basal ganglia
PL, preFL - caudate - Globus Pallidus internal/subst nigra reticulata - thalamus (VA, MD)-frontal eye fields, supp eye fields
Contents of prefrontal channel of basal ganglia
PL, premotor cortex - caudate - Globus Pallidus internal/subst nigra reticulata - thalamus (VA, MD)- prefrontal cortex
Contents of limbic channel of basal ganglia
TL, hippocampus, amygdale-Nuc Accumbens, Caudaute, Putamen- ventral pallidum, Globus Pallidus internal, subst nigra reticulata, - thalamus (MD, VA)-anterior cingulate, orbital FL
Aspect of eye movement controlled by basal ganglia
Mediation of eye movements