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26 Cards in this Set

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Marshall Plan
Who: US and Western Europe
What: Plan to rebuild Europe
When: Post WWII, 1945
Why: To prevent the spread of Communism and create strong democratic trade partners
How: US loaned war torn nations money to rebuild using US made goods
Truman Doctrine
Who: US
What: policy to aid nations being threatened by Communists takeovers
When: 1947 to 1989
Where: Started in Greece & Turkey spread to include other nations as well
Why: To Prevent the Spread of Communism
How: US pledged money to help nations resisting takeovers
Containment
Who: US
What: US policy to prevent the spread of Communism
When: Cold War 1945-1989
Why: Communism was spreading, threatening democratic nations of the world
How: US intervened military and economically to thwart Communist influences
Divided Berlin
Who: US and Soviets
What: Berlin was split into E & W
When: Cold War, 1945-1989
Where: East Germany
Why: Tensions between US and Soviets
How: Soviets and US took zones
Berlin Airlift
Who: US
What: US supplied West Berliners by air after Stalin blockaded all roads in and out
When: Cold War 1945-1989
Why: Stalin was trying to force the US out of Berlin since it was located deep inside Soviet controlled East Germany
How: US flew supplies in via air and kept their footing in West Berlin after Stalin lifted the blocakde
NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Who: US and Western European Allies
What: economic and military alliance
When : Cold War 1945-1989
Why: alliance system with a "tripwire" philosophy, if one was attacked they would all come to aid
Warsaw Pact
Who: Soviets and Eastern European allies
What: military and economic alliance
When: Cold War,1945-1989
Why: created as a response to NATO
Cuba, Bay of Pigs
Who: US and Cuban Exiles
What: an invasion of Cuba to inspire a popular uprising to overthrow Castro
When: 1961
Where: Bay of Pigs in Cuba
Why: US (JFK) wanted to overthrow Fidel Castro because of his Communist government and alliance with the Soviets
How: US helped train anti-Castro Cubans to overthrow the Cuban government
Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis
Who: US (JFK), Soviets (Khruschev), Cuba (Castro)
What: Soviets installed nuclear missiles on Cuba
When: October 1962
How: Soviets built short range missile sites on Cuba that could hit the East coast of the US
Why: Soviets tried to gain the upper hand at strategically positioned missiles since the US has such sites in Turkey
Khruschev agreed to remove them after 13 days of intense pressure by JFK and a blockade of Cuban shipping lanes
Containment, examples of
Marshall Plan
Truman and Eisenhower Doctrines
Berlin Airlift
Korean War
Vietnam War
Korean War
Who: US/UN & South Koreans vs. Chinese & North Koreans (&USSR)
What: War errupted when North Korea invaded South Korea
When: June 1950 to armistice in 1953
Why: US sent troops to prevent South Korea from being overrun by Communist forces
How: Truman sent troops without Congress' approval. Dispute was settled in 1953 and border remained at the 38th parallel
MacArthur
Who: WWII hero and US General
What: Headed up mission to Korea, saw success until China pushed back
When 1950-1953
Why: He was fired when Truman insisted he fight a limited war and refused to allow use of nuclear weapons
limited war
Who: US policy
What: confining the war to one area and not using nuclear weapons
When: Cold War 1945-1989
Why: Strategy put in place to avoid another world war and to prevent the use of atomic weapons
Vietnam Conflict
Who: US & South Vietnam vs. USSR & North Vietnam
What: war
When: 1961-1973
Why: US was trying to prevent South Vietnam from falling to Communists (containment)
How: LBJ widened the war and sent US troops to war without a declaration of war from Congress
Baby Boom
Who: American citizens
What: population explosion
When: 1945-1960
Why: Americans had survived the great depression of the 1930s and World War II with a low birth rate. Post war prosperity gave them the security and stability to have kids
Joseph McCarthy
Who: US senator
What: made unfounded accusations against political opponents and those he felt were "soft" on Communism
When: 1950-54
Why: Made accusations without having evidence to increase his own power politically. Fear of Communist influence was pervasive in the US at the time
How: used public speaking engagements and televised hearings
GI Bill
Who: American servicemen returning from WWII
What: Offered government help with college tuition and low interest mortgage loans
When: 1944- 1950s
Why: Its purpose was to help Americans live the American Dream and raise the standard of living for middle class Americans
How: Veterans could go to college and receive training to improve their earnings potential and could afford to purchase new homes
Suburbs
Who: Middle class Americans
What: housing development on the outskirts of the cities
When: 1950s and 1960s
Why: Moved because of prejudices, to avoid crime
How: Made possible by the emerging highway system, cars, GI Bill, materialistic way of life
Space Race
Who: US and USSR
What: competition to have superior scientific knowledge and equipment
When: 1957-1989
Where: the final frontier
Why: posturing between countries for bragging rights but also desire for supreme military technology and scientific knowledge
How: Using experts in the field and experimenting with creation of new technologies
Sputnik
Who: USSR
What: artificial satellite
When: 1957
Where: Space
Why: Competition for control of space
Explorer I
Who: US
What: artificial satellite
When: 1958
Where: Space
Why: To "catch up" to the Soviets and close the missile gap
Arms Race
Who: US and Soviets
What: build up of weapons stock piles
When: 1945-1991
Why: So each country could try to gain an edge over the other militarily
How: creation of nuclear weaponry and long and short range missiles to carry a nuclear payload
Consumerism
Who: Americans
What: Americans purchasing consumer goods as fast as they can afford them
When: 1947-Present?
Why: Americans derived status from some consumer goods but also enjoyed improvements to their way of life from goods that lessened their work and entertained them
Blacklisting
Who: Accused Communists
What: a way of keeping undesirables from gaining employment
When: 1950s
Why: Americans were fearful of Communism's influence penetrating American culture and life
How: Lists were generated that prevented people from working especially in Hollywood
Electronic Media
Who: Americans
What: tv and radio
When: 1945-present
Why: Americans began spending increasing amounts of time viewing tv and being influenced by programming
Interstate Highway System
Who: Eisenhower
What: complex system of roads
When: 1950s
Where: Major highways linked major cities including East and West Coasts
Why: To improve mobility of people but also to move military equipment across the country if necessary
How: Congress allocated billions and Americans workers went to work building