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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the belief that humans consist of two materials: thought and matter
matter - dualism
component of dualism that is considered to be everything that has substance
thought - dualism
nonmaterial aspect that arises from but is in some way independent of a brain - gives humans free will
opponent theory of dualism - monists believe that everything is the same substance
mere-exposure effect
we prefer stimuli we have seen before over novel stimuli, even if we do not consciously remember seeing that old stimuli
research participants respond more quickly and/or accurately to questions they have seen before, even if they do not remember seeing them
blind sight
people who report being blind can accurately describe the path of a moving object or accurately grasp objects they cannot see
conscious level
information about yourself and your environment you are currently awatre of
nonconscious level
body processes ctronolled by your mind that we are not aware of - breathing, heart beating, and etc
preconscious level
information that you are not currently thinking about but can think about
subconscious level
information that we are not consciously aware of but we know must exist due to behavior - priming and mere-exposure effect
unconscious level
a level hypothesized by psychoanalytic psychologists where events and feelings unacceptable to our conscious mind are repressed
circadian rhythm
the metabolic and thought pattern during a period, usually a day
sleep onset
the period when we are falling asleep
alpha waves
high frequency, low amplitude waves that that are emitted during stages 1 and 2 of sleep - get progressively slower and higher in amplitude as we go from wakefulness and through stages 1 and 2
sleep spindles
short rapid bursts of brain waves during stage 2 of sleep
slow-wave sleep
stages 3 and 4, often called delta sleep because of the delta waves --- the slower the wave, the deeper the sleep and less aware we are of our environment - during this period our body fortifies our body
rapid eye movement - a stage often called paradoxial sleep because our brain waves appear as active and intense as they do when we are awake. The more stress we experience during the day, the longer our periods of REM sleep will be
most common sleep disorder, and insomniac has persisten problems getting to sleep or staying asleep at night - usually treated with suggestions for changes in behavior and reduction of stimulants
disorder in which the individual suffers from periods of intense sleepiness and may fall asleep at unpredictable and inappropriate times
sleep apnea
disorder in which person stops breathing for short periods of time during the night - process robs persion of deep sleep and causes tiredness and psosible interference with attention and memory - frequently goes undiagnosed because individuals do not remember waking up during the night
night terrors
nightmares - occurs during stage 4 sleep
sleep walking - occurs during stage 4 sleep
the series of storylike images we experience as we sleep - considered by freud as an important tool in his therapy. Freud considered dreams to be 'wish fulfilling'
manifest content
literal content of our dreams
latent content
the unconscious meaning of the manifest content
protected sleep
the process of the ego protecting an individual from the material in the unconscious mind by presenting repressed desires in the form of symbols
activation-synthesis theory
proposes that the biological phenomena of dreams are nothing more than interpretations of what is happening physiologically during REM sleep
information-processing theory
a theory falling somewhere in between the Freud and activation-synthesis theories that points out that stress during the day will increase the number and intensity of dreams during the night
posthypnotic amnesia
forgetting events that occurred while and individual was hypnotized
posthypnotic suggestion
hypnotized person behave in a certain way after he or she is brought out of hypnosis
role theory
theory suggesting that hypnosis is not an alternate state of consciousness but rather a social phenomenon. During hypnosis people are acting out the role of a hypnotized person and following the suggestoins of the hypnotist because that is what is expected of the role.
hypnotic suggestibility
some people are more easily hypnotized than others
state theory
the theory that hypnosis meets some parts of the definition for an altered state of consciousness and that hypnotists seem to be able to suggest that we become more or less aware of our environments
dissociation theory
according to ernest hilgard, hypnosis causes us to divide our consciousness voluntarily - one part or level of our consciouness responds to the suggestions of the hypnotist
psychoactive drugs
chemicals that change the chemistry of the brain
blood-brain barrier
the thicker than usual walls surrounding the brain's blood vessels
drugs that mimic neurotransmitters
durgs that block neurotransmitters
physiological change that produces a need for more of the same drug in order to achieve the same affect
drugs that speed up body processes, including autonomic nervous system functions such as heart and respiration rate
drugs that slow down body processes
reverse tolerance
opposite of tolerance - second dose may be less than the first but cause the same or greater effect
drugs that act agonists for endorphins and thus are powerful painkillers and mood elevators