Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/572

Click to flip

572 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
flippant (adj)
lacking proper seriousness.

When Mark told Mona he loved her, she dismissed his earnest declaration with a flippant "Oh, you say that to all the girls!"

flippancy (n)
flit (v)
fly, dart lightly; pass swiftly by.

Like a bee flitting from flower to flower, Rose flitted from one boyfriend to the next.
floe (n)
mass of floating ice.

The ship made slow progress as it battered (strike repeatedly with hard blows) its way through the ice floes.
flora (n)
flora and fauna of Vietnam.

plants of a region or era. Because she was a botanist, she spent most of her time studying the flora of the desert.

botany
1.
1. The science or study of plants.
2. A book or scholarly work on this subject.
2. The plant life of a particular area: the botany of the Ohio River valley.
3. The characteristic features and biology of a particular kind of plant or plant group.
florid (adj)
ruddy; reddish; flowery.

If you go to Florida and get sunburn, your complexion will look florid. If your post cards about your trip praise it in flowery words, your prose will be florid, too.

prose: ordinary speech or writing, without metrical structure.
flotsam (n)
drifting wreckage.

Beachcombers (nguoi song lang thang ben bo bien) eke out a living by salvaging the flotsam and jetsam of the sea.

In maritime law, flotsam applies to wreckage or cargo left floating on the sea after a shipwreck. Jetsam applies to cargo or equipment thrown overboard from a ship in distress and either sunk or washed ashore. The common phrase flotsam and jetsam is now used loosely to describe any objects found floating or washed ashore.
flout (v)
reject, mock
flunctuate (v)
waver; shift.
fluke (n)
unlikely occurrence; stroke of fortune.

When Douglas defeated Tyson for the heavyweight championship, some sportscasters dismissed his victory as a fluke.
fluster (v)
confuse.

The teacher's sudden question flustered him and he stammered his reply.

stammer: To speak with involuntary pauses or repetitions.
To utter with involuntary pauses or repetitions.
A way of speaking characterized by involuntary pauses or repetitions.
fluted (adj)
having vertical parallel grooves (as in a pillar (cot tru) ).

All that remained of the ancient building were the fluted columns.
flux (n)
flowing; series of changes.

While conditions are in such a state of flux, I do not wish to commit myself too deeply in this affair.
flounder (v)
struggle and thrash about; proceed clumsily or falter.

Up to his knees in the bog. Floyd floundered about, trying to regain his footing. Bewildered by the new software, Floyed floundered until Jan showed her how to get started.
fodder (n)
coarse food for cattle, horses, etc.

One of Nancy's chores at the ranch was to put fresh supplies of fodder in the horses' stalls.
foil
(n) contrast
In Star Wars, dark, evil Darth Vader is a perfect foil for fair-haired, naive Luke Skywalker.

(v) defeat, frustrated
In the end, Skywalker is able to foil Vader's diabolical schemes
foible (n)
weakness, slight fault.

We can overlook the foibles of our friends; no one is perfect.
foist (v)
insert improperly; palm off.


I will not permit you to foist such ridiculous ideas upon the membership of this group.
foliage (n)
masses of leaves.

Every autumn before the leaves fell he promised himself he would drive through New England to admire the colorful fall foliage.
foment (v)
stir up; instigate.

Cher's archenemy Heather spread some nasty rumors that fomented trouble in the club. Do you think Cher's foe meant to foment such discord ?
foolhardy (adj)
rash.

Don't be foolhardy. Get the advice of experienced people before undertaking this venture
fop (n)
dandy;

man excessively preoccupied with his clothes
foray (n)
raid.

attack, assault, incursion, swoop, strike, onslaught, sortie, sally, push, thrust

The company staged a midnight foray against the enemy outpost.
forbearance (n)
patience.

Be patient with John. Treat him with forbearance: he is still weak from his illness.
ford (n,v)
place where a river can be crossed on foot.

Rather than risk using the shaky rope bridge. David walked a half-mile downstream until he came to the nearest ford.
forbears (n)
ancestors.

Reverence for one's forebears plays an important part in many Oriental cultures
foreboding (n)
premonition (A presentiment of the future; forewarning) of evil.

Suspecting no conspiracies against him, Caesar gently ridiculed his wife's forebodings about the Ides of March.
forensic (adj)
suitable to debate or courts of law.

In her best forensic manner, the lawyer addressed the jury.
portend (v)
foreshadow (be a sign or warning that (something, esp. something momentous or calamitous (catastrophe)
forestall (v)
prevent by taking action in advance.

By setting up a prenuptial agreement, the prospective bride and groom hoped to forestall any potential arguments about money in the event of a divorce.


prenuptial: existing or occurring before marriage : prenuptial pregnancy.
forgo (v)
give up, do without.

Ida decided to forgo dessert to loose weight.
forlorn (adj)
sad and lonely; wretched.

Deserted by her sisters and friends, the forlorn child sat sadly on the steps awaiting their return.
forsake (v)
desert; abandon; renounce.

No one expected Foster to forsake his wife and children to run off with another woman.

he forsook his wife
forswear
renounce; abandon.

The captured knight could escape death only if he agreed to forswear Christianity and embrace Islam as the one true faith.
abash (v)
embarrass

I was not at all abashed by my admiration to Einstein
abdicate (v)
renounce, give up.

When Edward VIII abdicated the British throne, he surprised the entire world.

rw: abjure
abet (v)
assist, usually in doing something wrong; encourage.

She was unwilling to abet him in the swindle (cozen) he had planned.
abeyance (n)
suspended action

The deal was held in abeyance until her arrival.
abhor (v)
detest, hate. She abhorred all forms of bigotry.

bigot: One who is strongly partial to one's own group, religion, race, or politics and is intolerant of those who differ.

rw: abnominate
abject (adj)
wretched; lacking pride.

On the streets of New York, the homeless live in abject poverty, huddling in doorways to find shelter from the wind.
abjure (v)
renounce upon oath; disavow.

Pressure from the university authorities caused the young scholar to abjure his heretical opinions.

rw: abdicate
ablution (n)
washing.

His daily ablutions were accompanied by loud noises that he humorously labeled "Opera in the Bath"
abnegation (n)
renunciation; self-sacrifice.

Though Rudolph and Duches Flavia love one another, their love was doomed, for she had to wed the king; their act of abnegation was necessary to preserve the kingdom.
abominable (ajd)
detestable; extremely unpleasant; very bad.

Mary liked John until she learned he was also dating Susan; then she called him an abominable young man, with abominable taste in women.
abominate
loathe; hate

Moses scolded the idol worshipers in the tribe because he abominated the custom.

rw: abhor
aboriginal
being the first of its kind in a region; primitive; native.

Her studies of the primitive art forms of the aboriginal Indians were widely reported in the scientific aborigine.
abortive
unsuccessful; fruitless.

Attacked by armed troops, the Chinese students had to abandon their abortive attempt to democratize Beijing peacefully.
abrade
rub away; tend to grind down

Just as abrasive cleaning powders can wear away a shiny finish, abrasive remarks can wear away a listener's patience.
abridge
condense or shorten.

Because the publishers felt the public want shorter version of War and Peace, they proceed to abridge the novel.
abrogate (v)
abolish, annul

The King intended to abrogate the decree issued by his predecessor.

Abolish, withdraw, cancel, retract, revoke, vitiate or repeal
abscission
removal by cutting off, as in surgery; separation.

Gas gangrene spreads so swiftly and is so potentially deadly that doctors advise abscission of the gangrenous tissue.
When a flower or leaf separated naturally from the parent plant, this process is called abscission or leaf fall.

botany: study about plants.
The shedding of leaves, flowers, or fruits following the formation of the abscission zone.
absolve
pardon (an offense).

The father confessor absolved him of his sins. absolution
abut
border upon; adjoin.

Where our estates abut, we must build a fence.
abysmal
bottomless.

His arrogance is exceeded only by his abysmal ignorance.
abyss
enormous chasm; vast, bottomless pit
accede
agree.

If I accede to this demand for blackmail, I am afraid that I will be the victim of future demands.

RW: assent
acclaim
applaud; announce with great approval.

The sportscasters acclaimed every American victory in the Olympics and decried every American defeat.

decry, disparage, depreciate, derogate, belittle, minimize, downgrade. These verbs mean to think, write, or speak of as being of little value or importance.
Decry implies open denunciation or condemnation: A staunch materialist, he decries economy.
Disparage often implies the communication of a low opinion by indirection: Many critics disparage psychoanalysis as being a pseudoscience.
To depreciate is to assign a lower than customary value to someone or something: Some musicologists depreciate Liszt's compositions.
Derogate implies a detraction that impairs: People often derogate what they don't understand.
Belittle and minimize mean to make less important, but minimize strongly implies the minimum level: He belittled the child's attempts to draw. She tried to minimize my accomplishment.
To downgrade is to minimize in importance or estimation: Her rival downgraded the painting, calling it decorative but superficial.
acclimate
adapt, adjust to climate or environment; adapt.

One of the difficulties of our present air age is the need of travelers to acclimate themselves to their new and often strange environments.
acclivity
sharp upslope of a hill.

The car could not go up the acclivity in high gear.


sw: aloft
accolade
award of merit.

In Comp Sci, the Turing is the highest accolade
accomplice (n)
partner in crime.

Because he had provided the criminal with the lethal weapon, he was arrested as an accomplice in the murder.
accost
approach and speak first to a person.

When the two young men accosted me, I was frightened because I thought they were going to attack me.

RW: solicit
accoutre / accouter
equip.

The fisherman was accoutered with the best that the sporting good store could supply. accoutrement.
accretion (n)
accrete (v)
growth, increase.

Over the years Bob put on weight; because of his accretion of flesh, he went from size M to size XL.


rw: wax|wane
accrue (v) / accrual (n)
come about by addition, to increase, accumulate.

You must pay the interest that has accrued on your debt as well as the principle sum.

To accumulate over time: I have accrued 15 days of sick leave.
acerbic (adj)/ accerbity
bitter or sour in nature, sharp and cutting.

Noted for her acerbic wit and gossiping. Alice Roosevelt Longworth had a pillow in her home embroidered with the legend "if you can't say something good about someone, sit right here by me"

RW: astringent, caustic, corrosive, mordacious, mordant, pungent, trenchant, truculent, acidulous, acrid.
acetic
vinegary.

The salad had an exceedingly acetic flavor.
acidulous
slightly sour; sharp; caustic.

James was unpopular because of his sarcastic and acidulous remarks.

RW: acerbic (a bit stronger)
acme
peak; pinnacle; highest point.

Welles' success in Citizen Kane marked the acme of his career as an actor; never again did he achieve such popular acclaim.

RW: summit


SYNONYMS summit, peak, pinnacle, acme, apex, zenith, climax. These nouns all mean the highest point. Summit denotes the highest level attainable: “This [appointment] had been the summit of Mr. Bertram's ambition” (Sir Walter Scott). Peak usually refers to the uppermost point: “It was the peak of summer in the Berkshires” (Saul Bellow). Pinnacle denotes a towering height, as of achievement: The articulation of the theory of relativity catapulted Einstein to the pinnacle of his profession. Acme refers to an ultimate point, as of perfection: The artist's talents were at their acme when this work was created. Apex is the culminating point: The military regime represented the apex of oppression and intimidation. Zenith is the point of highest achievement, most complete development, or greatest power: “Chivalry was then in its zenith” (Henry Hallam). Climax refers to the point of greatest strength, effect, or intensity that marks the endpoint of an ascending process: The government's collapse was the climax of a series of constitutional crises.
acquittal (adj) / acquit (v)
deliverance from a charge.
The state of being found or proved not guilt


His acquittal by the jury surprised those who had thought him guilty.

RW: clear, exculpate, exonerate, vindicate.
acrid
sharp; bitterly pungent

The acrid order of burnt gunpowder filled the room after the pistol had been fired.

RW: bitter, acerbic
actuarial
calculating; pertaining to insurance statistics.

According to recent actuarial tables, life expectancy is greater today than it was century ago.
actuate
motivate.

I fail to understand what actuated you to reply to this letter so nastily

RW: activate, impel
Ant: impede, stop
acuity
sharpness.

In time his youthful acuity of vision failed him, and he needs glasses
acute (adj) / acumen
quickly perceptive; keen; brief and sever.

The acute young doctor realized immediately that the gradual deterioration of her patient's once-acute hearing was due to a chronic (kinh nien, thuong xuyen, perenial) illness, not an acute one.
adage
wise saying; proverb.

There is much truth in the old adage about fools and their money.

rw: proverb, aphorism, apothegm

saying, maxim, adage, saw, motto, epigram, proverb, aphorism. These nouns refer to concise verbal expressions setting forth wisdom or a truth. A saying is an often repeated and familiar expression: a collection of philosophical sayings. Maxim denotes particularly an expression of a general truth or a rule of conduct: “For a wise man,
he seemed to me … to be governed too much by general maxims” (Edmund Burke). Adage applies to a saying that has
gained credit through long use: a gift that gave no credence to the adage, “Good things come in small packages.” Saw often refers to a familiar saying that has become trite through frequent repetition: old saws that gave little comfort to the losing team. A motto expresses the aims, character, or guiding principles of a person, group, or institution: “Exuberance over taste” is my motto. An epigram is a witty expression, often paradoxical or satirical and neatly or brilliantly phrased: In his epigram Samuel Johnson called remarriage a “triumph of hope over experience.” Proverb refers to an old and popular saying that illustrates something such as a basic truth or a practical precept: “Slow and steady wins the race” is a proverb to live by. Aphorism, denoting a concise expression of a truth or principle, implies depth of content and stylistic distinction: Few writers have coined more aphorisms than Benjamin Franklin.
addendum (n)
addition; appendix to book.

Jane's editor approved her new comparative literature text but though it would be even better with an addendum on recent developments in literacy criticism.
addle (V)
muddle; drive crazy; become rotten.

This idiotic plan is confusing enough to addle anyone. addled.

RW: bewilder, perplex, muddle, confound, confuse
adherent (N)
supporter; follower.

In the wake of the scandal, the senator's one-time adherents quietly deserted him.
adjunct (N)
something (generally nonessential or inferior) added or attached.

Although I don't absolutely need a second computer, I plan to buy a laptop to serve as an adjunct to my desktop model.

RW: appendage, supplement
adjure (V) / adjuration (N)
solemnly urging.

Her adjuration to tell truth did not change the witnesses' testimony.
adjutant (N)
staff officer assisting the command; assistant.

Though Wellington delegated many tasks to his chief adjutant, Lord Somerset, Somerset was in no doubt as to who made all major decisions.
adorn (V) / adornment (N)
decorate.

Wall paintings and carved statues adorned the temple.
adulation / adulate
flattery; admiration

the rock star thrived on the adulation of his groupies and yes-men.
adventitious
accidental; casual.

She found this adventitious meeting with her friend extremely fortunate.

fortituous
adverse
unfavorable; hostile.

The recession had a highly adverse effect on Father's investment portfolio: he lost so much money that he could no longer afford the butler and the upstairs maid.
adversity
poverty; misfortune.

We must learn to meet adversity gracefully.
advert
refer (to).

Since you advert to this matter so frequently, you must regard it as important.

inadvertently: accidentally, unintentionally.
aegis
shield; defense.

Under the aegis of the Bill of Rights, we enjoy our most treasured freedoms.
aerie
nest of a large bird of prey (eagle, hawk).

The mother eagle swooped down on the rabbit and bore (bear) it off to her aerie high in the Rocky Mountains.
affected
artificial; pretended; assumed in order impress.

His affected mannerism --- his "Harvard" accent, his air of boredom, his use of obscure foreign words - bugged us: he acted as if he thought he was too good for his old HS friends. affection
affidavit
written statement made under oath.

The court refused to accept her statement unless she presented it in the form of an affidavit.
affinity
kinship.

She felt an affinity with all who suffered; their pains were her pains
affix
attach or add on; fasten.

First the registrar had to affix his signature to the license; then he had to affix his official seal.
affliction
state of distress; cause of suffering.

Even in the midst of her affliction, Elizabeth tried to keep up with the spirits of those around her.
affluence
abundance; wealth.

Foreigners are amazed by the affluence and luxury of the American way of life
affront (N/V)
insult; offense; intentional act of disrespect.

When Mrs. Proudie was not seated besides the Archdeacon at the head table, she took it as a personal affront and refused to speak to her hosts for a week.
agape
open mouthed, wide open (due to amazement)

She stared, agape , at the many strange animals in the zoo.
agglomerate(v)/agglomeration (n)
collection; heap.

It took weeks to assort the agglomeration of miscellaneous items she had collected on her trip.
aghast (adj)
horrified; dumbfounded.

Miss Manners was aghast at the crude behavior of the fraternity brothers at the annual toga party.
agility (n)
nimbleness, dexterity.

The agility of the acrobat amazed and thrilled the audience
agnostic/ atheistic/ theistic
one who's skeptical of the existence of a god or any ultimate reality.

Agnostics say we can neither prove nor disprove the existence of God; we simply have no way to know.
agog (adj)
highly excited; intensely curious.

Full of keen anticipation or excitement; eager.

We were all agog at the news that the celebrated movie star was giving up his career in order to enter a monastery.
agrarian (n)
pertaining to land or its cultivation.

As a result of its recent industrialization, the country is gradually loosing its agrarian tradition.
alchemy (n)
medieval form of speculative thought that aimed to transform base metals (lead or cooper) into silver or gold and to discover a means of prolonging life or the finding of panacea (remedy to cure all diseases)

Although alchemy anticipated science in its belief that physical reality was determined by an unvarying set of natural laws, the alchemists' experimental method was hardly scientific.
alcove (n)
nook ; recess

Though their apartment lacked a full-scale dining room, an alcove adjacent to the living room made an adequate breakfast nook for the young couple.
alimentary (adj)
supplying nourishment, nutritional

The alimentary canal in our bodies is so named because digestion of foods occurs there. When asked for the name of the digestive tract, Sherlock Holmes replied, "Alimentary, my dear Watson."
alimony (n)
payments made to an ex-spouse after divorce.

Because Tony had supported Tina through medical school, on their divorce he asked the court to award $500 a month in alimony.
allay (v)
relieve; calm; pacify.

The crew tried to allay the fears of the passengers by announcing that the fire had been controlled.
allege (v) / allegation (n)
state without proof.

Although it is alleged that she has worked for the enemy, she denies the allegation and, legally, we can take no action against her without proof.
allegory (n) /allegorical (adj)
story in which characters are used as symbols; fable.

Pilgrim's Progress is an allegory of the temptations and victories of the human soul.
alliteration (n)
repetition of beginning sound in poetry.

"The furrow followed tree" is an example of alliteration.
alloy
mix; make less pure; lessen or moderate.

Our delight at the Mets' victory was alloyed by our concern for Al Laites, who injured his pitching arm in the game.
allude
refer indirectly

Try not to allude to this matter in his presence because the topic annoys him.
allusion
indirect reference

the allusions to mythological characters in Milton's poems bewilder the reader who has not studied Latin.
alluvial
pertaining to soil deposits left by running water

The farmers found the alluvial deposits at the mouth of the river very fertile.
aloof
apart; reserved

Shy by nature, she remained aloof while all the rest conversed.
aloft
upward

The sailor climbed aloft into the rigging.
altercation
noisy quarrel, a vehement quarrel.

Throughout the altercation, not one sensible word was uttered.
altruistic
unselfishly generous; concerned for others

In providing tutorial assistance and college scholarships to hundreds of economically disadvantaged youths, Eugene Lang performed a truly altruistic deed.
amass
collect, accumulate

The miser's aim is to amass and hoard as much gold as possible.
ambidextrous
capable of using either hand with equal ease

A switch-hitter in baseball should be naturally ambidextrous.
ambiance / ambience
environment; atmosphere

She went to the restaurant not for the food but for the ambiance.
amble
moving at an easy pace

When she first mounted the horse, she was afraid to urge the animal to go faster than a gentle amble.
ambrosia
food of the gods

ambrosia was supposed to give immortality to any human who ate it.
ambulatory
able to walk

He was described as an ambulatory patient because he was not confined to his bed.
amenable
readily managed; willing to be led

He was amenable to any suggestions that came from those he looked up to; he resented advice from his inferiors.

sw:compliant, conformable, docile, obedient, submissive
rw: corrigible
amend
correct; change, generally for the better

Hoping to amend his condition, he left Vietnam for the United States.
amicable
friendly, amiable

The dispute was settled in an amicable manner with no harsh words.
amiss
wrong; faulty

Seeing her frown (nhi'u ma`y), he wondered if anything were amiss.
amity
friendship

Student exchange programs such as the Experiment in International Living were established to promote international amity.
amnesia
loss of memory

Because she was suffering from amnesia, the police could not get the young girl to identify herself.
amphitheater
oval building with tiers of seats

The spectators in the amphitheater cheered the gladiators.
amputate
cut off part of body; prune

When the doctors had to amputate Ted Kennedy's leg to prevent the spread of cancer, he did not let the loss of his leg keep him from participating in sports.
amok / amuk
in a state of rage

The police had to be called in to restrain him after he ran amok in the department store.
amulet
charm; talisman
Around her neck she wore the amulet that the witch doctor had given her.
bu`a ho^. tha^n
analgesic
painkiller, causing insensitivity to pain

The analgesic qualities of this lotion will provide temporary relief.

rw: anodyne
anarchist
person who rebels against the established order

Only the total overthrow of all governmental regulations would satisfy the anarchist.
anathema / anathematize (V)
solemn curse; someone or something that is despised

He heaped anathema upon his foe.

anathematize: curse

The high priest anathematized the heretics.
ancillary
serving as an aid or accessory; auxiliary

In an ancillary capacity Doctor Watson was helpful; however, Holmes could not trust the good doctor to solve a perplexing case on his own.
anemia
condition in which blood lacks red corpuscles

The doctor ascribes her tiredness to anemia.
anesthetic (adj/n) / anesthesia
substance that removes sensation with or without loss of consciousness

His monotonous voice acted like an anesthetic; his audience was soon asleep.
anguish
acute pain; extreme suffering

Visiting the site of explosion, Premier Gorbachev wept to see the anguish of the victims and their families.
animadversion
critical remark

He resented the animadversions of his critics, particularly because he realized they were true.
animosity
hostile, active enmity

He incurred the animosity of the ruling class because he advocated limitations of their power.
animus (n)
hostile feeling or intent

The animus of the speaker became obvious to all when he began to indulge in sarcastic and insulting remarks.
annals
records; history

In the annals of this period, we find no mention of democratic movements.
anneal
reduce brittleness and improve toughness by heating and cooling

After the glass is annealed, it will be less subject to chipping and cracking.

samurai sword ?


(nghĩa bóng) tôi luyện, rèn luyện
annuity
yearly allowance

The annuity he set up with the insurance company supplements his social security benefits so that he can live very comfortably without working
anodyne
drug that relieves pain; opiate

His pain was so great that no anodyne could relieve it.

rw: analgestic, painkiller
anoint
consecrate, to choose by or as if by divine intervention.

The prophet Samuel anointed David with oil, crowning him king of Israel.
antagonistic (adj)
hostile; opposed

Despite his lawyers' best efforts to stop him, the angry prisoner continued to make antagonistic remarks to the judge.
antecede (v) / antecedent (n)
precede

The invention of the radiotelegraph anteceded the development of television by a quarter of a century.

antecedents
preceding events or circumstances that influence what comes later; early life; ancestors

Before giving permission for Drummie to marry Estella, Miss Havisham had a few questions about the young man's birth and antecedents
antediluvian
antiquated; ancient

The antediluvian customs had apparently not changed for thousands of years.
anthropoid
manlike

The gorilla is the strongest of the anthropoid animals.
anthropologist
student of the history and science of humankind

Anthropologists have discovered several relics of prehistoric humans in this area.

botanist
bugologist/zoologist
anthropomorphic
having human form or characteristics

Primitive religions often have deities with anthropomorphic characteristics.
antiquated
obsolete; outdated

Accustomed to editing his papers on word processors, Philip thought typewriters were too antiquated for him to use.
antiseptic
substance that prevents infection

It is advisable to apply an antiseptic to any wound, no matter how slight or insignificant.
antithesis
contrast; direct opposite of or to

This tyranny was the antithesis of all that he had hoped for, and he fought it with all his strength.
ape / apish
imitate or mimic

He was suspended for a week because he had aped the principal in front of the whole school.
aperture
opening; hole

She discovered a small aperture in the wall, through which the insects had entered the room.
aphasia
loss of speech due to injury or illness

After the automobile accident, the victim had periods of aphasia when he could not speak at all or could only mumble incoherently
aplomb
poise; composure; confidence

Wellington's nonchalance (casual lack of concern) and aplomb in the heat of battle always heartened his followers.
apocalyptic (adj)
prophetic; pertaining to revelations; especially of disaster

His apocalyptic remarks were dismissed by his audience as wild surmises (lack of supporting evidence, a conjecture).
apocryphal (adj)
fiction, untrue; made up, questionable authority.

To impress his friends, Tom invented apocryphal tales of his adventures in the big city.
apogee
highest point; farthest or highest point: apex

When the moon in its orbit is furthest away from the earth, it is at its apogee.
apoplexy
stroke; loss of consciousness followed by paralysis

tai bien mach mau nao

He was crippled by an attack of apoplexy.
apostate
renegade, deserter, one who abandons his religious faith or political beliefs

Because he switched from one party to another, his former friends shunned him as an apostate.
apothecary (n)
pharmacist, druggist

In Holland, apothecaries still sell spices as well as ointments and pills.
apothegm
pithy, compact saying

Proverbs are apothegms that have become familiar sayings.
apotheosis
deification (deify: raising someone status to a deity); glorification

The Roman empress Livia envied the late emperor his apotheosis; she hoped that on her death she, too, would be exalted (elevated, exaggerated, inflated) to the rank of a god
appal
dismay; shock;
làm mất tinh thần; làm mất hết can đảm

We were appalled by the horrifying conditions in the city's jails.
apparition
ghost; phantom

Hamlet was uncertain about the identity of the apparition that had appeared and spoken to him.
appellation
name; title

He was amazed when the witches hailed him with his correct appellation.
application
diligent attention; (secondary meaning) apply

Pleased with how well Tom had whitewashed the fence, Aunt Polly praised him for his application
apposite
appropriate; fitting

He was always able to find the apposite phrase, the correct expression for every occasion.
apprehend
arrest ( a criminal); dread; perceive

The police will apprehend the culprit and convict him before long.
apprehensive
fearful, anxious;
discerning

His apprehensive glances at the people who were walking in the street revealed his nervousness.
appurtenances
appendage, adjunct, subordinate (phụ, phụ thuộc, lệ thuộc, ở dưới quyền, cấp dưới) possessions

He bought the estate and all its appurtenances.

rw: auxillary
apropos
with reference to; regarding

I find your remarks apropos of the present situation timely and pertinent.
aptitude
fitness; talent

The counselor evaluated his aptitudes before advising him about the career he should follow.
aquiline
curved, hooked

He can be recognized by his aquiline nose, curved like the beak of the eagle.
arable
fit for plowing, cultivation

The land was no longer arable; erosion had removed the valuable topsoil
arbiter / arbitrate
person with power to decide a matter in a dispute; judge

As an arbiter in labor disputes, she has won the confidence of the workers and the employers.
arcade
a covered passageway, usually lined with shops

The arcade was popular with shoppers because it gave them protection from the summer sun and the winter rain.
arcane
secret; mysterious

What was arcane to us was clear to the psychologist.
archeology
study of artifacts and relics of early mankind

The professor of archeology headed an expedition to the Gobi Desert in search of ancient ruins.

kha?o co^? ho.c
archetype
prototype; primitive pattern

The Brooklyn Bridge was the archetype of the many spans that now connect Manhattan with Long Island and New Jersey.
archipelago
group of closely located islands

When he looked at the map and saw the archipelagoes in the South Seas, he longed to visit them.
argot
slang

In the argot of the underworld, she "was taken for a ride."
arid
dry; barren

The cactus had adapted to survive in an arid environment.
aristocracy
hereditary nobility; privileged class

Americans have mixed feelings about hereditary aristocracy.

tra chuyen con noi
aromatic
fragrant

Medieval sailing vessels brought aromatic herbs from China to Europe
arraign
charge in court; indict

After his indictment by the Grand Jury, the accused man was arraigned in the County Criminal Court.
array
marshal; draw up in order

His actions were bound to array public sentiment against him.

clothe; adorn

She liked to watch her mother array herself in her finest clothes before going out for the evening
arrears
being in debt

He was in arrears with his payments on the car.
arroyo
gully

Until the heavy rains of the past spring, this arroyo had been a dry bed.
artifacts
products of primitive culture

Archaeologists debated the significance of the artifacts discovered in the ruins of Asia Minor and came to no conclusion
artifice
deception; trickery

The Trojan War proved to the Greeks that cunning and artifice were often more effective than military might.
artisan
a manually skilled worker

Artists and artisans alike are necessary to the development of a culture.
ascendancy
controlling influence, domination

President Marcos failed to maintain his ascendancy over Philippine
asceptic
antiseptic, preventing infection; having a cleansing effect

Hospitals succeeded in lowering the mortality rate as soon as they introduced asceptic conditions.
asinine
stupid

Your asinine remarks prove that you have not given this problem any serious consideration.
askance
with a sideways or indirect look

Looking askance at her questioner, she displayed her scorn.

With disapproval, suspicion, or distrust: “The area is so dirty that merchants report the tourists are looking askance” (Chris Black).
asperity
sharpness (of temper), harshness

say with asperity

These remarks, spoken with asperity, stung the boys to whom they had been directed.

aspersion: slander, bittering remark, act of defaming
aspirant
seeker after position or status

Although I am an aspirant for public office, I am not willing to accept the dictates of the party bosses.
assail
assault, trouble, attack

He was assailed with questions after his lecture.
assay
analyze; evaluate

When they assayed the ore (qua(.ng mo?), they found that they had discovered a very rich vein.
assess / assessment
estimation; appraisal

I would like to have your assessment of the situation in South Africa.

rw: assay
astigmatism
eye defect that prevents proper focus

As soon as his parents discovered that the boy suffered from astigmatism, they took him to the optometrist for corrective glasses.
astral
relating to the stars

She was amazed at the number of astral bodies the new telescope revealed.
bacchanalian
drunken

Emperor Nero attended the bacchanalian orgy.
badger
pester; annoy

She was forced to change her telephone number because she was badgered by obscene phone calls.
badinage
teasing conversation

Her friends at work greeted the news of her engagement with cheerful badinage.
baffle
frustrate; perplex

The new code baffled the enemy agents.
bait
harass; tease

The soldiers baited the prisoners, terrorizing them.
baleful
menacing; deadly

Casting a baleful eye at his successful rival, the rejected suitor stole off, vowing to have his revenge.
balk
stoop short, as if faced with an obstacle, and refuse to continue

The chief of police balked at sending his officers into the riot-torn area.
balk
foil
例句: When the warden learned that several inmates were planning to escape, he took steps to balk their attempt.
ballast
heavy substance used to add stability or weight

The ship was listing badly to one side; it was necessary to shift the ballast in the hold to get her back on an even keel.
balm
something that relieves pain

Friendship is the finest balm for the pangs of disappointed love.
balmy
mild; fragrant

A balmy breeze refreshed us after the sultry blast.
bandy
discuss lightly; exchange blows or words

The president refused to bandy words with reporters at the press conference.
bantering
good-naturedly ridiculing

They resented his bantering remarks because they misinterpreted his teasing as sarcasm.
barb
sharp projection form fishhook, etc.; pointed comment

The barb from the fishhook caught in his finger as he grabbed the fish.
bard
poet

The ancient bard Homer sang of the fall of Troy.
barefaced
shameless; bold; unconcealed

Shocked by Huck Finn's barefaced lies, Miss Watson prayed the good Lord would give him a sense of his unregenerate wickedness.
baroque
highly ornate

Accustomed to the severe, angular lines of modern skyscrapers, they found the flamboyance of baroque architecture amusing.
barrage
barrier laid down by artillery fire; overwhelming profusion

The company was forced to retreat through the barrage of heavy canyons.
barrister
counselor-at-law

Galsworthy started as a barrister, but when he found the practice of law boring, turned to writing.
barterer
trader

The barterer exchanged trinkets for the natives' furs.
bask
luxuriate; take pleasure in warmth

basking on the beach, she relaxed so completely that she fell asleep.
bate
let down; restrain

Until it was time to open the presents, the children had to bate their curiosity.
bauble
trinket; trifle

The child was delighted with the bauble she had won in the grab bag.
bawdy
indecent; obscene

She took offense at his bawdy remarks.
beatific
giving bliss; blissful

The beatific smile on the child's face made us very happy.
beatitude
blessedness; state of bliss

Growing closer to God each day, the mystic achieved a state of indescribable beatitude.
bedizen
dress with vulgar finery

The witch doctors were bedizened in their gaudiest costumes.
bedraggle
wet thoroughly

We were so bedraggled by the severe storm that we had to change into dry clothing.
befuddle
confuse thoroughly

His attempts to clarify the situation succeeded only on befuddling her further.
beget
father; produce; give rise to

One good turn may deserve another; it does not necessarily beget another.
avarice
greed

similar: cupidity, avidity; covetousness; parsimony
contrary: philanthropy; charity, benevolence; munificence; beneficence; altruism (altruistic)
awry
twisted; gone wrong (as in plans that went awry)

similar: amiss; astray; afield; askew; aslant; tortuous; serpentine; convoluted; vermicular

contrary: true; assiduous; undeviating
balk (v)
to stop short; refuse to continue

The chief of police balked at sending his officers into the riot-torn area.

When the warden learned that several inmates were planning to escape, he took steps to balk their attempt.

similar: demur; spurn; shun; desist; halt; falter; stammer; suspend

contrary: advance, proceed; persevere; persist; endure; pertinacious; dogged; indefatigable.
bate
to moderate or restrain; hold back (as in bated breath)

Until it was time to open the presents, the children had to bate their curiosity.

similar: impede; bridle; abate; repress; quell; quash; suppress; curb
contrary: unfetter; emancipate; manumit; discharge; extricate
bauble (n)
a trinket
The child was delighted with the bauble she had won in the grab bag.

similar: trifle; toy; triviality; memento; souvenir
behemoth
a huge creature, leviathan (e.g., big ship or whale)

Sportcasters nicknamed the linebacker "The Behemoth."

similar: leviathan, mammoth; gargantuan; prodigious; titanic; colossal; vast
contrary: dwarf: mannequin; pygmy; diminutive; bantam; lilliputian; minutia
bereaved (n/adj)
the state of having lost something cherished or valuable (as in the death of a family member)

His friends gathered to console him upon his sudden bereavement.

similar: bereft: deprived; denuded; forfeited.
bilk
to deceive; defraud

The con man specialized in bilking insurance companies.

similar: dupe; swindle; beguile; delude; cozen, feign
blazon (v)
to herald, to proclaim or announce publicly or conspicuously (noticeably, obviously)

similar: herald, publicize; divulge; promulgate; publish; flaunt.
boisterous
loud, rough, or violent

The unruly crowd became even more boisterous when he tried to quiet them.

similar: clamorous; tumultuous, obstreperous; rambunctious; riotous; turbulent
contrary: sedate; staid; reconciled; subdued; placid, tranquil
bovine (adj)
cowlike; dull or inactive

Nothing excites Esther; even when she won the state lottery, she still preserved her air of bovine calm.

similar: inert; loutish; slothful; torpid; indolent; languid; phlegmatic; listless

contrary: astir; exuberant; animated; vivacious; effervescent; ebuillient
brusque
abrupt or blunt in speech

She was offended by his brusque reply;

similar: curt; bluff; crude; frank; boorish; sententious; terse
contrary: tactful ; suave; glib
bungle
to mishandle; botch up; make a bad mistake ; spoil by clumsy behavior

I was afraid you would bungle his assignment but I had no one else to send.

similar: blunder; bollix; spoil; ruin; impair
contrary: ameliorate; rectify; finesse
caliber (n)
ability; capacity

A man of such caliber should not be assigned such menial tasks.
callous (adj)
hardened; unfeeling

He had worked in the hospital for so many years that he was callous to the suffering in the wards.
canard (n)
unfounded rumor

It is almost impossible to protect oneself from such a base canard.
cardinal (adj)
chief
If you want to increase your word power, the cardinal rule of vocabulary-building is to read.
cauterize (v)
burn with hot iron or caustic

In order to prevent infection, the doctor cauterized the wound.
cavil (v)
make frivolous objections; to raise irritating and trivial objection.

I respect your sensible criticisms, but I dislike the way you cavil about unimportant details.
cloy (v) / cloying (adj)
distasteful (because excessive); excessively sweet or sentimental

Disliking the cloying sweetness of standard wedding cakes, Jody and Tom chose a homemade carrot cake for their reception.
cornucopia (n)
affluence, abundance; plenty; horn overflowing with fruit and grain; symbol of abundance

The encyclopedia salesman claimed the new edition was a veritable cornucopia of information, an inexhaustible source of knowledge for the entire family.

contrary: paucity; dearth; scarcity; want
coterie
a close knit group of people with common interest. group that meets socially; select circle

After his book had been published, he was invited to join the literary coterie that lunched daily at the hotel.

clique; cadre; clan; cabal; retinue
dissipated
depleted; squander

The young man quickly dissipated his inheritance and was soon broke.
* bị xua tan, bị tiêu tan
* bị phung phí (tiền của)
* bị tiêu mòn, bị uổng phí (nghị lực); tản mạn (sự chú ý...)
* chơi bời phóng đãng
dapper
neat and trim;

similar: fastidious, natty

In "The Odd Couple," Tony Randall played Felix Unger, an excessively dapper soul who could not stand to have a hair out of place.
debonair
friendly; aiming to please

1. Suave; urbane.
2. Affable; genial.
3. Carefree and gay; jaunty.

The debonair youth was liked by all who met him, because of his cheerful and obliging manner.

contrary: impudent; impertinent; insolent; flippant; churlish; boorish; unceremonious.
deft
adroit, adept; dexterous; neat; skillful

The deft waiter uncorked the champagne without spilling a drop.

maladroit; inept; gauche
dictum
arthoritative and weighty statement

She repeated the statement as though it were the dictum of the most expert worker in the group.
dither (n)
great excitement; agitation; trembling.

A state of indecisive agitation.

To be nervously irresolute in acting or doing.

similar: commotion; frenzy; tumult; clamor; turbulence; ado; perturbation

contrary: tranquility; armistice
dolt (n)
a stupid person

I thought I was talking to a mature audience; instead, I find myself addressing a pack of dolts.

similar: imbecile; simpleton; ignoramus; dullard
contrary: prodigy; savant; virtuoso; sage; paragon
dour
sullen; gloomy

The man was dour and taciturn.

similar: morose; somber; doleful; melancholy; lugubrious; saturnine; dismal
contrary: blithe; jovial; jocund; sanguine
dross
waste matter; worthless impurities

Many methods have been devised to separate the valuable metal from the dross.
earthy
unrefined; coarse

His earthy remarks often embarrassed the women in the audience.
ebb
recede; lessen

His fortunes began to ebb during the recession.

recede, ebb, retract, retreat, retrograde. These verbs mean to move backward: a hairline that had receded; waters that ebb at low tide; a turtle that retracted into its shell; an army that retreated to avoid defeat; academic standards that have retrograded.
economy
efficiency or conciseness in using something

Reading the epigrams of Pope, I admire the economy of his verse: in few words he conveys worlds of meaning.
edify
instruct; correct morally

Although his purpose was to edify and not to entertain his audience, many of his listeners were amused and not enlightened.
eerie
weird; Suggestive of the supernatural; mysterious

In that eerie setting, it was easy to believe in ghosts and other supernatural beings.

sw: uncanny; bizarre; peculiar; deviant; anomalous, inexplicable, aberrant
effectual
efficient

If we are to succeed, we must seek effectual means of securing our goals.
effeminate
having womanly traits

His voice was high-pitched and effeminate.
effervescence
inner excitement; exuberance

Nothing depressed her for long; her natural effervescence soon reasserted itself.
effete (adj)
not able to bear young, worn out; exhausted; barren

The literature of the age reflected the effete condition of the writers; no new ideas were forthcoming.

depleted, (emaciate = become very thin)
efficacy
power to produce desired effect
The efficacy of this drug depends on the regularity of the dosage
effluvium
noxious smell

Air pollution has become a serious problem in our major cities; the effluvium and the poisons in the air are hazards to life.
egotism
conceit; vanity

She thought so much of herself that we found her egotism unwarranted and irritating.
egoism
excessive interest in one's self; belief that one should be interested in one's self rather than in others; egotism; conceit; narcism

His egoism prevented him from seeing the needs of his colleagues.
elated
overjoyed; in high spirits

Grinning from ear to ear, Bonnie Blair was clearly elated by her Olympic victory.
elixir
cure-all; something invigorating

The news of her chance to go abroad acted on her like an elixir.
emaciated (adj)
withered, thin, or wasted

His long period of starvation had left him emaciated.

similar: gaunt; enervated
emanate (v)
flowing form; issuing from/forth

A strong odor of sulfur emanated from the spring
embroil
throw into confusion, involve someone else in a dispute

He became embroiled in the heated discussion when he tried to arbitrate the dispute.
emollient (n)
soothing or softening remedy, a softening ointment or other agent

He applied an emollient to the inflamed area.
emolument
salary or other compensation for employment

In addition to the emolument this position offers, you must consider the social prestige it carries with it.
enthrall
to captivate; hold under a spell; fascinate; capture; enslave

From the moment he saw her picture, he was enthralled by her beauty.

sw: mesmerize; bewitch; stupefy; enchant
equestrian
rider on horseback

These paths in the park are reserved for equestrians and their steeds.

sw: jockey; cavalry; dragoon
contrary: pedestrian; afoot
esprit (n)
sprightliness of spirit or wit

sw: enthusiasm; vitality; morale; energy; vigor; zeal; ebullience
exemplary
outstanding; suitable as a model (either good or bad)

Her exemplary behavior was praised at commencement.

similar: ideal; consummate; paragon; archetypal, quintessential; epitome; egregious; extant
exorbitant
excessive; extravagant

sw: inordinate; immoderate; plethoric; lavish; superfluous; turgid
contrary: depleted; bereft;

The people grumbled at his exorbitant prices but paid them because he had a monopoly .
exonerate
acquit; exculpate

I am sure this letter naming the actual culprit will exonerate you.
extol
to praise

The astronauts were extolled as the pioneers of the Space Age.

sw: laud; commend; acclaim; eulogize; hail; esteem; venerate; adulate; revere
contr: inveigh; censure; fulminate
facilitate
to make easier

He tried to facilitate repayment of the loan by getting a part-time job.

sw: assist; expedite; further; *succor* (NOT succumb); dispatch; precipitate
cont: impede; hamper; hinder; arrest.
fathom
to understand thoroughly; literally; to reach the bottom of something.

I find his motives impossible to fathom

sw: discern; conceive; assimilate
fetid
having an offensive smell;

The neglected wound became fetid.

sw: malodorous; putrid; noisome; rank; noxious; mephitic
contrary: aromatic, fragrant; odoriferous, redolent
filch
to steal; purloin
the boys filched apples from the fruit stand
flippant / flippancy
disrespectful; rude; trifling gaiety

Your flippancy at this serious moment is offensive.

similar: impertinent; impious, impudent; insolent; audacious; churlish; unceremonious
contrary: debonair; chivalrous; duteous
flux
a continuous moving on or passing by; constant succession or change.

While conditions are in such a state of flux, I do not wish to commit myself too deeply in this affair.

similar: instability; transmutation; metamorphosis; transfiguration; influx; efflux
cont: stagnancy; stationary; inert; dormancy; stasis.
foible (n)
a small character weakness; slight fault

We can overlook the foibles of our friends; no one is perfect.

sw: frailty; flaw
foist
to force upon or impose upon fraudulently, insert improperly; palm off

I will not permit you to foist such ridiculous ideas upon the membership of this group

sw: palm; swindle; dupe; chicane
fetter
to bind; chain

sw: bridle; muzzle; lash; encumber; adjure; manacle;
batten; gird; fob; indenture; enslave
cont: unfetter; emancipate; disencumber; extricate; exculpate; manumit
gaffe
social blunder
sw: tactlessness; maladroitness; peccadillo; oversight; bungle
According to Miss Manners, to call your husband by your lover's name is worse than a mere gaffe; it is a tactical mistake
gall
bitterness; nerve (v.annoy)

The knowledge of his failure filled him with gall.

similar: effrontery; temerity; insolence; audacity; brashness; impertinence
gabit
any move by which one seeks to gain an advantage; an opening move in chess in which a piece is sacrificed

The player was afraid to accept his opponent's gambit because he feared a trap which as yet he could not see.

sw: stratagem; coven; machination; ruse; tactic; ploy; chicanery; arbitrage; subterfuge; artifice.
gamut
entire range

In this performance, the leading lady was able to demonstrate the complete gamut of her acting ability.

sw: spectrum; breadth; scope; purview; panaoply
garish
gaudy; overly showy; tasteless showy

She wore a garish rhinestone necklace.

sw: meretricious; ostentatious; florid;
contrary: seemly; unadorned; unobstrucsive
garner
to gather; store up; collect; accumulate

She hoped to garner the world's literature in one library.

sw: amass; hoard; agglomerate; accrue
gesticulate
to gesture or motion

Operatic performers are trained to make exaggerated gesticulations because of the large auditoriums in which they appear.
glower
to scowl or frown

sw: grimace; glare; smirk

The angry boy glowered at his father.
gnome
dwarf

sw: mannequin; pygmy; lilliputian; bantam; gremlin
cont: leviathan; mammoth; colossus

In medieval mythology, gnomes were the special guardians and inhabitants of subterranean mines.
grovel
to behave in a service fashion (literally, to crawl on the round)

sw: cower; wallow; fawn
ct: condescend; deign; patronize
guise (n)

(disguise)
appearance

sw: countenance; mien; demeanor; facade; semblance

In the guise of a plumber, the detective investigated the murder case.
hap
chance or luck

In his poem hap, Thomas Hardy objects to the part chance plays in our lives.
hebetic
dull; fatigued

sw: lethargic; torpid; listless; phlegmatic; languid

contrary: vivacious; effervescent, ebullient; zealous; ardent; fervent; fervid
hedonist / hedonism
belief that pleasure is the sole aim in life

hedonism and asceticism are opposing philosophies of human behavior.
heedless
not noticing; disregarding; careless; unmindful

He drove on, heedless of the warnings that the road was dangerous.

sw: remiss; negligent; oblivious; reckless; slack; lax
cont: circumspect; wakeful; wary; rapt; vigilant; punctilious
herald
to announce or foretell
sw: blazon, proclaim; divulge; promulgate, foreshadow; portend; presage
hermetic
sealed by fusion so as to be airtight

After these bandages are sterilized, they are placed in hermetic containers

sw: impervious; impermeable; inscrutable; caulked
cont: pervious; permeable, porous, pregnable
heterodox
unorthodox; unconventional

To those who upheld the belief that the earth did not move, Galileo's theory that the earth circled the sun was disturbingly heterodox.


sw: eccentric; maverick; deviant; idiosyncratic; outlandish
hew (v)
cut to pieces with ax or sword

The cavalry rushed into melee and hewed the enemy with their swords.
hoary
white (hair) with age; very old

The man was hoary and wrinkled when he was 70.
comport
to behave; to conform oneself;bear one's self; behave

He comported himself with great dignity.

sw: comply; accord; acquiesce
cont: transgress; trespass; balk
imbue
saturate, fill; permeate; pervade

His visits to the famous Gothic cathedrals imbued him with feelings of awe and reverence.
improvident
wasteful; neglectful; thriftless

He was constantly being warned to mend his improvident ways and begin to "save for a rainy day."


sw: imprudent; negligent; remiss; prodigal; profligate; inadvertent; heedless
cont: prudent; provident; politic; mindful; puntilious
impasse
predicament from which there is no escape

In this impasse, all turned to prayer as their last hope.

sw: dilemma, quandary; straight; plight; mire
impious
irreverent

The congregation was offended by her impious remarks.

sw: sacrilegious; blasphemous; flippant; impudent (not to be confused with imPRUdent)
cont: reverent; respectful; courteous
harp (v) / harping (n)
tiresome dwelling on a subject

After he had reminded me several times about what he had done for me, I told him to stop his harping on my indebtedness to him.
ineluctable
irresistible; inevitable; inescapable; not to be escaped

He felt that his fate was ineluctable and refused to make any attempt to improve his lot.

sw: ineludible; inevasible; inexorable
inscrutable
impenetrable; unfathomable, not readily understood; mysterious

Experienced poker players try to keep their expressions inscrutable, hiding their reactions to the cards behind a so-called poker face.

sw: impervious; impermeable; hermetic; enigmatic; cryptic; abstruse; recondite
ct: pervious; permeable; porous; pregnable; fathomable; ascertainable
iota
a very small quantity

similar: shed; trace; fleck; scintilla
inculcate
to teach persistently and earnestly

sw: indoctrinate; admonish; ingrain; infix; brainwash

inculcate the young with the sense of duty
indelible
incapable of being erased or eradicated (abolish, eliminate)

sw: permanent; ineffaceable; ineradicable; immutable

ct: eradicable; temporary; revocable; evanescent; temporal
inveterate
deep-rooted; longstanding

he is an inveterate smoker and cannot break the habit.

sw: habitual; entrenched; ensconced; ingrained; inbred; innate
jaded
fatigued, exhausted, weary, surfeited
He looked for exotic foods to stimulate his jaded appetite.
jaunt (n) / jaunty (adj)
jaunt: trip; short journey
He took a quick jaunt to Atlantic City.

jaunty: lighthearted; animated; easy and carefree
In Singing in the Rain, Gene Kelly sang and danced his way through the lighthearted title number in a properly jaunty style.
jocose
given to joking

The salesman was so jocose that many of his customers suggested that he become a stand-up comic.
jostle
shove; bump

In the subway he was jostled by the crowds.

sw: jar; collide; jolt; impact; nudge; propel
jubilant
rejoicing; characterized by great joy; joyful (especially due to a triumph or other joyous event)

There was great jubilitantion when the armistice (truce) was announced.

similar: elated; exuberant; exultant; reveling; frolicsome .
juncture
an intersection; a crisis

At this critical juncture, let us think carefully before determining the course we shall follow.

sw: crossroads; concourse; junction; confluence; bifurcation; exigency; dilemma; quandary
jut
to extend out; protrude

sw: bulge; extrude; distend; bloat; bastion; cantilever
kaleidoscope
tube in which patterns made by the reflection in mirrors of colored pieces of glass, etc., produce interesting symmetrical effects

People found a new source of entertainment while peering through the kaleidoscope; they found the ever-changing patterns fascinating

sw: variegation; matrix; array; mosaic; aurora; chameleon; protean; mutation; motley
kindle
start a fire; ignite, inspire
Her teacher's praise kindled a spark of hope inside her.
New Mexico's promise of financial aid kindles a spark of hope inside myself.

sw: incite; impel; foment; spur
knead
mix; work dough

Her hands grew strong from kneading bread.

sw: amalgamate, alloy
knell
tolling of a bell, especially to indicate a funeral, disaster, etc.; sound of the funeral bell

"The curfew tolls the knell of parting day."
knoll
little, round hill

Robert Louis Stevenson's grave is on a knoll in Samoa; to reach the grave site, you must climb uphill and walk a short distance along a marked path
knurled
knotty; gnarled

similar: contorted; serpentine
kraft
strong paper (usually brown in color) used for making bags and for wrapping ..
maim (v)
batter, mutilate; mangled, haul, injure

The hospital could not take care of all who had been mangled or maimed in the railroad accident.

sw: mangle, deface; dismember
manumit (v)
emancipate; free from bondage, to release from slavery or servitude

Enlightened slave owners were willing to manumit their slaves and thus put an end to the evil slavery in the country

sw: liberate, discharge, *unfetter*, disencumber, exculpate, extricate, disenthrall.
cont: enslave; indenture; fetter; bridle; muzzle; lash; encumber; manacle; adjure
masochism / masochist (n)
intentional infliction of pain on oneself, person who enjoys his own pain

The masochist begs, "Hit me." The sadist smiles and says, "I won't."

cont: sadism: intentionally infliction of pain on another
mephitic (adj)
offensive to the smell; noxious or poisonous.

sw: fetid; malodorous; putrid; noisome; rank; deleterious
cont: aromatic; odoriferous, redolent; salubrious; salutary.
mete (v)
to measure; to distribute (as in mete out rations)

He tried to be impartial in his efforts to mete out justice.
sw: allot; parcel; allocate; apportion, ration; divvy; dole; dispense; issue
mettle (n)
courage; spirit; character

When challenged by the other horses in the race, the thoroughbred proved its mettle by its determination to hold the lead.

sw: constitute; spirit; composition; fabric.
motile (adj) motility (n)
capable of moving spontaneously

Certain organisms exhibit remarkable motility; motile spores, for example, may travel for miles before coming to rest.

sw: ambulatory; mobile; transportable; migratory; transient.
cont: stationary, dormant; static; anchored; inert; sluggish; phlegmatic; entrenched; ingrained.
motley (adj)
parti-colored; mixed; colorful; composed of many elements.

The captain had gathered a motley crew to sail the vessel.

sw: variegated; dappled; polychromatic; kaleidoscopic; psychedelic; prismatic; heterogeneous; sundry; commingled; multiform; manifold.

cont: monochromatic; homogeneous; uniform; monolithic.
mulct (v)
defraud a person of something, to punish by fine or forfeiture; to deprive another of possession by fraud.

The lawyer was accused of trying to mulct the boy of his legacy.

sw: penalize; amerce; exact; sanction; confiscate; expropriate
natty (adj)
neatly or smartly dressed

Priding himself on being a natty dresser, the gangster Bugsy Siegel collected a wardrobe of imported suits and ties

sw: dapper; chic; spruce; smart, foppish; fastidious
cont: disheveled; slovenly; unkempt; tatterdemalion.
necromancy (n)
black magic; dealings with the dead
Because he was able to perform feats (acts) of necromancy, the natives thought he was in league with the devil.

sw: witchcraft; sorcery; sortilege; wizardry; thaumaturgy; shamanism; conjuration; occultism; alchemy; legerdemain.
nemesis (n)
revenging agent

Captain Bligh vowed to be Christian's nemesis.

sw: vindication; vengeance; revenge; retaliation; recompense.
nettle (v)
annoy; vex

Do not let him nettle you with his sarcastic remarks.

sw: perturb; peeve; irk; chafe; abrade; exasperate
niggling (adj)
spend too much time on minor points; carp

Let's not niggle over details.

sw: cavil; picayune; pedantic; petty; carping; belaboring; quibbling; trifling
nonplus (v)
bring to a halt by confusion; perplex

Jack's uncharacteristic rudeness nonplussed Jill, leaving her uncertain how to react.

sw: stupefy; bewilder; confound; baffle; addle; befuddle
cont: clarify; elucidate; explicate
nostalgia
homesickness; longing for the past

The first settlers found so much work to do that they had little time for nostalgia.

sw: homesick; yearning; sentimental; mawkish; maudlin
nubile
marrigeable; suitable for marriage (referring to a young woman, especially in physical development.

Mrs. Bennet, in Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen, was worried about finding suitable husbands for her five nubile daughters.

sw: eligible; maturated; ripe; precocious
ct: juvenile; pubescent; puerile
oblivion
forgetfulness
Her work had fallen into a state of oblivion; no one bothered to read them.

sw: vacuity; temporalness; obsolescence
ct: remembrance; amanuensis; reminiscence; nostalgia; memoir
obtuse
slow to understand; insensitive (literally, blunt) blunt; stupid

Because he was so obtuse, he could not follow the teacher's reasoning and asked foolish questions.

sw: undiscerning; doltish; dull; dimwitted; moronic, abstruse, recondite,
cont: perspicacious; keen; astute; discerning
odyssey
long eventful journey.

The refugee's journey from Cambodia was a terrifying odyssey

similar: trek; *peregrination*; excursion; pilgrimage; junket; safari; transhumance ; migration
ogle
to glance flirtatiously at
glance coquettishly at; make eyes at

Sitting for hours at the sidewalk cafe, the old gentleman would ogle the young girls and recall his youthful romances.

sw: eye, stare; leer; gape; agape
onus
burden; responsibility

The emperor was spared the onus of signing the surrender papers; instead, he relegated the assignment to his generals.

sw: accountability; liability; culpability
opulence (n)
extreme wealth; luxuriousness; abundance

The glitter and opulence of the ballroom took Cinderella's breath away.

sw: affluence; prosperity; privilege; indulgence; extravagance.
cont: destitution; pauperism; *mendicancy*; indigence.
ordinate
fundamental; primary

sw: rudimentary; basal; *inchoate*, axiomatic; chief; capital; cardinal; axial; definitive; incisive
ct: subordinate; subsidiary; subservient; auxiliary; *ancillary*
oust
to force out or expel or drive out

The world wondered if Aquino would be able to oust Marcos from office.

sw: banish; evict; exile; ostracize; *extradite*
overt
out in the open; not hidden, open to view

According to the United States Constitution, a person must commit an overt act before he may be tried for treason.

sw: perceptible; apparent; manifest; evident; palpable
ct: convert; camouflaged; shrouded; veiled; clandestine; surreptitious.
pall (v)
something that covers over; especially in darkness or gloom; to become wearisome; tiresome; or unpleasant

The study of word lists can eventually pall and put one to sleep.

sw: shroud; cloy; surfeit; glut; oppress
pallid (adj)
pale or deficient in color (as from fear or ill health)

Because his occupation required that he work at night and sleep during the day, he had an exceptionally pallid complexion.

sw: sallow; wan; ashen; anemic (*anemia*), waxen; blanched
ct: blushed; ruddy; rosy; cerise; rubicund; sanguine; motley
pan
to criticize harshly

Hoping for a rave review of his new show, the playwright was miserable when the critics panned it unanimously.

sw: censure; reprove; chastise; reprimand; reproach; remonstrate; inveigh; disapprobate; reprobate
ct: acclaim; extol; plaudit; laud; hail; adulate; commend; approbate (to sanction, authorize); panegyrize; eulogize.
parley
a conference

The peace parley has not produced the anticipated truce (A temporary cessation or suspension of hostilities by agreement of the opposing sides; an armistice.).

sw: council; intercourse; dialogue; rendezvous; tryst
parochial (adj)
narrow or limited in scope

Although Jane Austen writes novels set in small rural communities, her concerns are universal, not parochial.

sw: provincial; insular; sectarian
ct: pandemic; universal; rife; epidemic
peripheral
pertaining to the outer region of something (as opposed to the core or center)

We lived, not in central London, but in one of those peripheral suburbs that spring up on the outskirts of the great city.

sw: marginal; ambient; extraneous; extrinsic; auxiliary; ancillary
cont: nuclear; chief; capital; cardinal; axial; definitive; incisive; fundamental; primary; ordinate; axiomatic
poseur
a person who pretends to be sophisticated or elegant in order to impress others

Some thought Dali was a brilliant painter; others dismissed him as a poseur.

sw: feigner; parvenu; upstart
prattle
to speak in a childish manner; babble

The children prattle endlessly about their new bauble

sw: jabber; twaddle; chatter; drivel; gibberish
puerile
pertaining to a child

His puerile pranks sometimes offended his more mature friends.

sw: callow; nubile; fledgling; pubescent; juvenile; green
ct: hoary; grizzled; ancient; ripened; antique; decrepit; doddering.
purloin (v)
to steal or take dishonestly

sw: pilfer; filch, misappropriate; abscond; peculate; **embezzle**; *foist*
quaff (v)
to drink with relish

As we quaffed our ale (a type of alcoholic, stronger than beer), we listened to the gay songs of the students in the tavern.

sw: guzzle; swig; imbibe; swill; ingurgitate; partake
quail (v)
to shrink with fear; cower; lose heart

He was afraid that he would quail in the face of danger.

sw: cower; recoil; cringe; shudder; flinch; wince
quaint
unusual in a charming way; old-fashioned, picturesque

Her quaint clothes and old-fashioned language marked her as an eccentric

sw: curious; peculiar; eccentric
qualms
misgivings; doubts

His qualms of conscience had become so great that he decided to abandon his plans.

sw: scruples; hesitance; skepticism; leeriness; wariness; reluctance; mistrust; trepidation; dread; circumspection

qualm, scruple, compunction, misgiving. These nouns denote a feeling of uncertainty about the fitness or correctness of an action. Qualm is a disturbing feeling of uneasiness and self-doubt: “an ignorant ruffianly gaucho, who . . . would . . . fight, steal, and do other naughty things without a qualm” (W.H. Hudson). Scruple is an uneasy feeling arising from conscience or principle about a course of action: “My father's old-fashioned notions boggled a little at first to this arrangement . . . but his scruples were in the end overruled” (John Galt). Compunction implies a prick or twinge of conscience aroused by wrongdoing or the prospect of wrongdoing: stole the money without compunction. Misgiving suggests often sudden apprehension: had misgivings about quitting his job.
quash/quell
to put down or suppress

The authorities acted quickly to quash the student rebellion, sending in tanks to cow the demonstrators.

The police used fire hoses and tear gas to quell the rioters.

sw: subdue; squelch; allay; stifle; quench; vanquish
ct: spur; induce; promote; facilitate; provoke; goad; incite; foment; instigate
quaver/quiver (v)
to shake tremulously

tremulous
1. Marked by trembling, quivering, or shaking.
2. Timid or fearful; timorous.

sw: tremble; shiver; shudder; quiver.
quibble (v)
equivocate (lie, vong vo tam quoc), to nitpick; to evade an issue by making irrelevant points

Do not quibble; I want a straightforward and definite answer.

sw: carp; cavil; gripe; elude; parry; muddle; obfuscate; niggling, waffle
quip (n)
witty or sarcastic remark; taunt

You are unpopular because you are too free with your quips and sarcastic comments.

sw: mockery; insult; gibe; jeer; satire; banter; ridicule; derision.
rabid (adj) (rabies)
irritating extreme in opinion, raging violently, like a fanatic; furious

He was a rabid follower of the Dodgers and watched them play whenever he could go to the ball park.

sw: fanatic; frenzied; altruistic; maniacal; fervent; fervid; ardent
raiment (n)
clothing; attire

"How can I go to the ball?" asked Cinderella. "I have no raiment fit to wear."

sw: vestments; garb; garments; apparel; habits; accouterments; ensemble; finery; regalia; trimmings; frippery
rampart (n)
small mound of earth used defensively in battle; defensive mound on earth

"From the ramparts we watched" as the fighting continued.

sw: barrier; fortification; impediment; barricade; bar; blockage; bastion; escarpment; barbican, hummock, hillock.
rarefied (adj)
lofty; made less dense (as in rarefied gases)

The mountain climbers had difficulty breathing in the rarefied atmosphere.

sw: exalted (apotheosis); esoteric; diffused; thinned; ethereal; vaporous
recourse (n)
access to assistance in time of trouble

The boy's only recourse was to appeal to his father for aid.

sw: resort; aid; relief; succor; avail; remedy
relent (v)
to surrender or give in

When her stern father would not relent and allow her to marry Robert Browning, Elizabeth Barrett eloped (run away, abscond) with her suitor.

sw: yield; capitulate; relinquish; cede; abdicate; succumb; acquiesce
cont: inexorable, relentless
relic (n)
a surviving memorial from the past, surviving remnant (remainder); memento

Egypt's Department of Antiquities prohibits tourists from taking mummies and other ancient relics out of the country.

sw: artifact; curio; **vestige***; remnant (remainder); bibelot; antique; memento (token, reminder, take this book as a memento of your visit)
reprieve (v)
to delay punishment, temporary stay

During the twenty-four-hour reprieve, the lawyers sought to make the stay of execution permanent.

sw: suspend; defer; adjourn; pardon
reprisal (n)
the infliction of an injury in return for an injury done, retaliation

I am confident that we are ready for any reprisals the enemy may undertake (multiple meanings: e.g., begin).

sw: revenge, recompense, vengeance, vendetta (blood feud), vindictive (not related to **vindicate**: clear of charges)
requite (v)
requital (n)
to repay; pay back; revenge

The wretch requited his benefactors by betraying them.

sw: recompense; remunerate; reimburse; rebate; vindicate; avenge; retribution
ct: (be in) arrears; owe; withhold
retribution (n)
vengeance; compensation; punishment for offenses

The evangelist maintained that an angry deity would exact retribution from the sinners.

sw: revenge; vindication; requital; recompense; retaliation, nemesis
rift (n)
a break or opening

The plane was lost in the stormy sky until the pilot saw the city through a rift in the clouds.

sw: chasm; fissure; breach; crevice; cranny; cleft; aperture; orifice
ruffian (n)
a bully

The ruffians threw stones at the police.

sw: scoundrel; miscreant; hooligan; thug
saga (n)
a myth or legend

This is a saga of the sea and the men who risk their lives on it.

sw: tale; epic; fable; allegory; parable
sartor (n)
a tailor, sartorial (pertaining to tailors)

He was as famous for the sartorial splendor of his attire as he was for his acting.

sw: couturier
scabbard (n)
a case for a sword or other blade, sheath

The drill master told the recruit to wipe the blood from his sword before slipping it back into the scabbard.

sw: sheath; quiver (shake w/ tremulous, arrow holder); holster
scathed (adj)
harmed; injured

1. To harm or injure, especially by fire.
2. To criticize or denounce severely; excoriate.

unscathed: unharmed -> They prayed he would come back from the war unscathed.

sw: wounded; damaged; aggrieved; impaired
scotch (v)
stamp out; thwart; hinder; to injure so as to make harmless;

Heather tried to scotch the rumor that she had stolen her best friend's fiance.

sw: foil; hinder; thwart; arrest; impede; forestall; preclude; interdict; sabotage; undermine; maim
scruple (n,v)
a moral or ethical consideration giving rise to hesitancy or doubt, fret about; hesitate, for ethical reasons

Fearing that her husband had become involved in an affair, she did not scruple to read his diary.

sw: qualms, misgivings, demurral; conscience; unwillingness; leeriness; wariness; reluctance
scurrilous (adj)
obscene; indecent

Your scurrilous remarks are especially offensive because they are untrue.

sw: lewd, vulgar; uncouth; indecorous; lascivious; licentious; unsavory; libertine; bawdy; ribald.
ct: seemly; decorous; befitting; scrupulous; genteel courtly
scourge
to whip (especially, in punishment), severe punishment.

# A source of widespread dreadful affliction and devastation such as that caused by pestilence or war.
# A means of inflicting severe suffering, vengeance, or punishment.

They feared the plague and regarded it as a deadly scourge.

sw: lash, switch; cane; chastise; castigate; discipline
scruple (n,v)
a moral or ethical consideration giving rise to hesitancy or doubt, fret about; hesitate, for ethical reasons

Fearing that her husband had become involved in an affair, she did not scruple to read his diary.

sw: qualms, misgivings, demurral; conscience; unwillingness; leeriness; wariness; reluctant
seine (n)
a type of fishing net

When the shad run during the spring, you may see fishermen with seines along the banks of our coastal rivers.

sw: snare; lure; trap
shun (v)
to stay away from; avoid

Cherishing his solitude, the recluse shunned the company of other human beings.

sw: eschew; avert; abstain; evade; elude; spurn; snub
ct: embrace; enfold; welcome
shunt (v)
to show out of the way; turn aside; divert; sidetrack

If the switchman failed to shunt the Silver Streak onto a side track, the train would plow right into Union Station.

sw: reject; jettison; shed; discard
squalid (adj)
neglected; dirty, or poor (especially, living conditions)

It is easy to see how crime can breed in such a squalid neighborhood.

sw: seedy; ramshackle; shabby
ct: tidy; immaculate
stentorian (adj)
extremely loud

The town crier had stentorian voice.

sw: clamorous, boisterous; obstreperous; strident; plangent; tumultuous; forte; rambunctious; riotous, turbulent
ct: quiescent; mute; tacit; placid; serene, sedate; staid; subdued; tranquil
suborn (v)
to induce another in an unlawful manner; to persuade another to commit an unlawful act

sw: bribe, inveigle; entrap; coax; corrupt; deprave; beguile; seduce; entice; allure
sundry (adj)
various; diverse; several

My suspicions were aroused when I read sundry items in the newspapers about your behavior.

sw: variegated; myriad; multifarious
svelte (adj)
gracefully slender; slender or graceful in figure or outline; slim.

sw: lithe; willowly; lissome
sybarite
a person devoted to luxury or pleasure

Rich people are not always sybarites; some of them have little taste for a life of luxury.

sw: epicurean; voluptuary; hedonist; debauchee
taper (v)
to become narrower; candle

He lit the taper (candle) on the windowsill.

sw: cramp; contract; squeeze; compress; constrict; obelisk; pyramid; carafe
ct: distend; widen; splay; flare; flute
tedium
boredom; weariness

We hope this radio will help overcome the tedium of your stay in the hospital.

sw: ennui; monotony, fatigue, pall, apathy, dullness; repetitiveness.
ct: scintillation; exuberance; titillation; jubilation (jubilant); ado; melodrama
tepid
luke warm (neither cold nor hot)

sw: indifferent; apathetic; nonchalant; impassive; sedate.
tether
to tie with a rope

Before we went to sleep, we tethered the horses to prevent their wandering off during the night.

sw: leash; fetter; manacle; moor; berth; anchor.
throng
a large crowd

Throngs of shoppers jammed the aisles.

sw: horde; swarm; host; multitude.
tithe (n,v)
a tax of one tenth (v. to give 1/10th as a tax or donation)

Because he was an agnostic, he refused to pay his tithes to the clergy.

sw: levy (to collect/impose tax, draft for military), tariff; toll; duty; assessment
toady
fawning flatterer; a "yes-man"

Never tell the boss anything he doesn't wish to hear. He doesn't want an independent adviser, he just wants a toady


sw: acolyte; lackey; minion; entourage; retinue.
tocsin
an alarm, bell, or another signal.

sw: knell; portent; foretoken; omen
travail (n)
laborious; arduous work

How long do you think a man can endure such travail and degradation without rebelling?

sw: drudgery; toil; labor; moil
tryst
an appointment for a meeting (especially a secretive meeting of lovers)

The lovers kept their tryst (meet) even though they realized their danger.

sw: rendezvous; engagement; parley
tutelage
training under the guidance and protection of another.

Under the tutelage of such masters of the instrument, she made rapid progress as a virtuoso (master in art/music)

sw: apprenticeship; guardianship; conservation; custody.
tyro
a beginner

For a mere tyro, you have produced some marvelous results.

sw: novice; neophyte; apprentice; amateur; rookie; greenhorn; proselyte
unconscionable
in violation of one's conscience

She found the load shark's demands unconscionable and impossible to meet.

sw: unscrupulous (scruple), corrupt; unethical; amoral; venal; sordid.

ct: conscionable; just; equitable.
ungainly
clumsy; awkward

He is an ungainly young man; he trips over everything.

sw: unwieldy, inept; maladroit; oafish; gauche (tactless), bungling (bungle), loutish.
unguent
ointment

Apply this unguent to the sore muscles before retiring.

sw: liniment; emollient; salve; balm; cerate; unction.
unrequited
Not reciprocated or returned in kind: unrequited love

Suffering the pangs of unrequited love, Olivia rebukes (reprove, reprimand, admonish) Cesario for his hard-heartedness.

requitt
1. reciprocate; to make repayment or return for: requite another's love. See synonyms at .
2. To avenge.

sw: unilateral; unrecompensed; delinquent (overdue in payment, fail to do what law requires) , owing; due

ct: reciprocate; recompense; remunerated; reimbursed; rebated; avenged.
unwieldy
cumbersome or awkward, ungainly

sw: unmanageable; bulky; clumsy; ungainly

The large carton was so unwieldy that the movers had trouble getting it up the stairs.


ct: manageable, controllable; yielding; compliant; cooperative; acquiescent.
unwitting
unknowing; unaware; unintentional

She was the unwitting tool of the swindlers

sw: ignorant; oblivious (oblivion); inadvertent; involuntary
upstart
a person who has become arrogant as a result of sudden rise to a position of importance;

sw: parvenu; elitist; snob; opportunist.
uxorious
overly devoted or submissive to one's wife

His friends laughed at him because he was so uxorious and submissive to his wife's desires.

sw: doting; fawning; indulgent.
vainglorious
excessively proud of one's accomplishments.

She was a vainglorious and arrogant individual.

sw: vain; boastful; conceited; egotistical; haughty; pompous; arrogant
ct: retiring; decorous; unpretentious; unobtrusive.
vantage
an advantageous position or condition.

They fired upon the enemy from behind trees, walls and any other point of vantage they could find.
sw: benefit; boon; privilege
vapid
lacking liveliness; spirit; or flavor, inane

She delivered an uninspired and vapid address.

sw: insipid; stale; banal; mundane; prosaic; phlegmatic; insouciant
variegated
varied in appearance; especially in color

Without her glasses, Gretchen saw the fields of tulips as a variegated blur.

sw: kaleidoscopic; polychromatic; dappled; motley; prismatic; mottled; mosaic; multifarious
vaunt
speak boastfully (vaingloriously) of

This much vaunted project proved a disappointment when it collapses

sw: brag: flaunt; gloat; tout; brandish; publicize
venturesome
bold; daring; hazardous

A group of venturesome women were the first to scale Mt.Annapurna.

sw: venturous; audacious; intrepid; treacherous; perilous; jeopardous
verge
edge, border

Madame Curie knew she was on the verge of discovering the secrets of radioactive elements.

sw: threshold; brink; precipice; brim.
vespertine
pertaining or occurring during the evening

sw: crepuscular; nocturnal
ct: diurnal (day time)
victuals
food, meals
I am very happy to be able to provide you with these victuals; I know you are hungry
sw: fare; comestibles; pabulum; pap; fodder; viand
vie
to compete
Politicians vie with one another, competing for donations and votes.
sw: contend; contest; rival; endeavor; clash; spar
vitriolic
severely sarcastic or caustic, corrosive;

Such vitriolic criticism is uncalled for.

sw: scathing; sardonic; acerbic; mordant; trenchant; acrimonious; pungent
vouchsafe
to grant condescendingly; to guarantee

sw: bestow, endow; bequeath; ensure; pledge, warrant.
waffle
to straddle an issue or refuse to commit oneself to a position

sw: equivocate; quibble, waver
waif
a person (esp a child) or animal w/out a home

Although he already had eight cats, he could not resist adopting yet another feline waif.

sw: stray; orphan; urchin; rogue; foundling; ragamuffin; tatterdemalion
warble
to sing in a birdlike manner

Every morning the birds warbled outside her window.

sw: cheep; twitter; coo; chirrup; whistle
wean
to break away from a dependency (esp a baby's dependency on its mother),
accustom a baby not to nurse; give up a cherished activity

He decided he would wean himself away from eating junk food and stick to fruits and vegetables.

sw: disengage; disentangle
welter
to roll; heave (raise/lift/throw w/ great effort) or writhe (twist), turmoil; bewildering jumble

The existing welter of overlapping federal and state proclaims cries out for immediate reform.

sw: flounder; wallow
wheedle
to deceive or persuade by flattery

cajole; coax; deceive by flattery

She knows she can wheedle almost anything she wants from her father.

sw: cajole; coax;entice; inveigle, lure; seduce; beguile; hoax
whit
a tiny particle

There is not a whit of intelligence or understanding in your observations.

sw: scintilla; bit; morsel; iota; shred; trace; fleck; minutia
wistful
characterized by a sad longing or yearning.

With a last wistful glance at the happy couples dancing in the hall, Sue headed back to her room to study for her exam.

sw: nostalgic; sentimental; melancholy; plaintive; lugubrious; pensive.
woe
misery; sorrow; grief


sw: affliction; distress; wretchedness; torment; melancholy
ct: elation; mirth; glee
wry
distorted; twisted, or devious (esp a sense of humor)

We enjoy Dorothy Parker's verse for its wry wit.

sw: sly; insidious; crafty; foxy; vulpine; askew; awry; aslant; tortuous; serpentine, convoluted; vermicular (worm-like)
xanthous
yellow or yellowish
xyloid
resembling wood; woodlike

sw: ligneous.
yelp
to cry sharply (like a dog)

sw: bark; shriek; yap; squeal; bellow
yoke
a device for joining (liking) two things together; oppression; domination, or harnessing.

I don't wish to be yoked to him in marriage, as if we were cattle pulling a plow.

sw: bridle; fetter; cinch; muzzle; halter
jokel
a country bumpkin

At school, his classmates regarded him as a yokel and laughed at his rustic mannerisms.

sw: hayseed; boor; churl; rustic; peasant; curmudgeon

ct: urbanite; bourgeois
yore
a time past

He dreamed of the elegant homes of yore, but gave no thought to their inelegant plumbing.

sw: ancient; antiquity; bygone; quondam; antecedent; anterior; erstwhile; antediluvian
zenithal
upright; erect; pertaining to the highest vertical point.
point directly overhead in the sky; summit

When the sun was at its zenith, the glare was not as strong as at sunrise and sunset.

sw: vertical; perpendicular; plumb.
zing
vitality; energy; animation

sw: verve; vim; vigor; zest; zeal; esprit; gusto; ebullience
zodiacal
pertaining to the heavens (esp to an imaginary belt cover which celestial bodies pass)

sw: cosmic; astrologic; astronomic; universal; celestial; sidereal
zonule
a little zone (designated area)

sw: band; belt
zoophagous
meat-eating

sw: carnivorous; predatory
fallible
like to to err (make error), weak (as in human)

everyone is fallible to some degree
i am only a fallible human
falter
hesitate

do not falter when it comes to girls :]
fell
cruel; deadly
feral (adj)
not domestic, wild
fancier
animals dealer or breeder.

The dog fancier exhibited her prize collie at the annual Kennel Club show.
farce
broad comedy; mockery

Nothing went right, the entire talk degenerated (deteriorated) into a farce.
fallow
plowed but not sowed; Left unplowed and unseeded during a growing season; uncultivated.

Farmers have learned that it is advisable to permit land to lie fallow every few years.
fatalism (fatalistic)
a belief that events are determined by forces beyond one's control.

Within fatalism, he accepted the hardships that beset (annoy) continually or chronically (longstanding)) him.
fauna
animals of a period or region.

The scientist could visualize the fauna of the period by examining the skeletal remains and the fossils.
faze
disconcert (embarrassed), dismay.

No crisis could faze the resourceful hotel manager
febrile
feverish (so^'t).

In his febrile condition, he was subject to nightmares and hallucinations.
feckless
feeble and infective; careless and irresponsible.
fecundity
fertility; fruitfulness.

The fecundity of her mind is illustrated by the many vivid images in her poems.

Rabbits (or even parakeets) are noted for their fecundity: in the absence of natural predators; they multiply, well like rabbits, as the Australians learned to their dismay.
feign
pretend. (malinger)

Lady Macbeth feigned illness
felicity (felicitous)
happiness; appropriateness.

She wrote a note to the newlyweds wishing them great felicity in their wedded life.
fell
cruel, deadly.

The newspapers told of the tragic spread of the fell disease.
ferret
drive or hunt out of hiding.

She ferreted out their secret.
ferment (not ferVent)
agitation, commotion (disorderly outburst or tumult).

With the breakup of the Soviet Union, much of Easter Europe was in a state of ferment.
fester
v. rankle; produce irritation or resentment.

n. A sore that has become inflamed and formed pus

Jole's insult festered in Anne's mind for days and made her too angry to speak to him.
festive (adj)
joyous; celebratory.

Their wedding in the park was a festive occasion.
fete (v,n)
honor at a festival.

The returning hero was feted at a community supper and dance.
fetid
malodorous (mal-odor); foul-smelling.

When a polecat is alarmed, the scent glad under its tail emits a fetid secretion (The organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance) used for territorial marking. Stinky! Does feta cheese smell fetid to you ?
fetter
shackle, Bound by chains fastened around the ankles

The prisoner was fettered to the wall.
fiat
command; authorization.

Although the bill abolishing the allowances and privileges of the former princes was rejected by the upper house, it was put into effect by presidential fiat.
fickle
faithless, changeable.

As soon as Romeo saw Juliet, he forgot all about his crush on Rosaline. Was Romeo fickle ?
figment
invention; imaginary thing.

Was he hearing real voices in the night, or were they just a figment of his imagination.
figurine
small ornamental statuette.

In the Maltese Falcon, Sam Spade was hired to trace the missing figurine of a black bird.
filial
pertaining to a son or daughter.

Many children forget their filial obligations and disregard the wishes of their parents.
filibuster
block legislation by making long speeches.

Even though we disapproved of senator Foghorn's political goals, we were impressed by his ability to filibuster endlessly to keep an issue from coming to a vote.
filigree
delicate, lacelike metalwork.

The pendant (An adornment that hangs from a piece of jewelry (necklace or earring)) with gold filigree that she wore round her neck trembled with each breath she took.
finesse
delicate skill

The finesse and adroitness of the surgeon impressed the observers in the operating room.
firebrand
hothead; troublemaker

The police tried to keep track of all the local firebrands when the President came to town.
fissure
crevice (A long narrow depression in a surface)

đường nứt, kẽ hở (tường, núi đá)

The mountain climbers secured footholds in tiny fissures in the rock.
fitful
spasmodic; intermittent (Stopping and starting at irregular intervals, *not* to be confused with imminent, )

After several fitful attempts, he decided to postpone the start of the project until he felt more energetic.
flaccid
flabby

His *sedentary* (inactive, requiring sitting or little activity) life had left him with flaccid muscles.
flag
droop; grow feeble (Lacking strength or vigor)

When the opposing hockey team scored its third goal only minutes into the first period, the home team's spirits flagged.
flagrant (adj)
conspicuously (prominently) wicked, Conspicuously and outrageously bad or reprehensible

We cannot condone such flagrant violations of the rules.
flail
thresh grain by hand; strike or slap; toss about

In medieval times, warriors flailed their foe with a metal ball attached to a handle.

* cái néo

* cái đập lúa


ngoại động từ

* đập (lúa...) bằng cái đập lúa

* vụt, quật
flair
talent

She has an uncanny (surpassing the ordinary or normal) flair for discovering new artists before the public has become aware of their existence.
flamboyant
ornate (Marked by elaborate rhetoric and elaborated with decorative details)

Modern architecture has discarded the flamboyant trimming on buildings and emphasizes simplicity of line.
flay
strip off skin; plunder

The criminal was condemned to be flayed alive.
fleck
spot

Her cheeks flecked with tears, were testimony to the hours of weeping.
fleece
rob; plunder.

The trickster fleeced him of his inheritance
flinch
hesitate; shrink.

Without a flinch.
facile
easy; expert


Because he was a facile speaker, he never refused a request to address an organization.
faction (factious)
party; clique; dissension

The quarrels and bickering of the two small factions within the club disturbed the majority of the members.

factious
inclined to form factions; causing dissension.

Your statement is factious and will upset the harmony that now exists.
factitious
artificial; sham

Hollywood actresses often create factitious tears by using glycerine.
factotum
handyman; person who does all kinds of work

Although we had hired him as a messenger, we soon began to use him as a general factotum around the office.
faculty
mental or bodily powers; teaching staff

As he grew old, he feared he might lose his faculties and become useless to his employer.
fallacious
misleading

Your reasoning must be fallacious because it leads to a ridiculous answer.
feint
trick; shift; sham blow

The boxer was fooled by his opponent's feint and dropped his guard.
forte
strong point or special talent

I am not eager to play this rather serious role, for my forte is comedy.
forthright
straightforward; direct; frank

I prefer Jill's forthright approach to Jack's tendency to beat around the bush.
founder
fail completely; sink

After hitting the submerged iceberg, the Titanic started taking in water rapidly and soon foundered.
fracas
brawl; melee; quarrel

The military police stopped the fracas in the bar and arrested the belligerents.
fractious
grumpy, peevish, unruly

The fractious horse unseated its rider.
frailty
weakness

The doctor prescribed vitamin and mineral supplements for the sick old woman because of her frailty.
frantic
wild

At the time of the collision, many people became frantic with fear.
fraught
filled

Since this enterprise is fraught with danger, I will ask for volunteers who are willing to assume the risks.
fray
brawl

The three musketeers were in the thick of fray.
fret
to be annoyed or vexed
To fret over your poor grades is foolish; instead, decide to work harder in the future.
friction
clash in opinion; rubbing against

At this time when harmony is essential, we cannot afford to have any friction in our group.
frieze
ornamental band on a wall

The frieze of the church was adorned with sculpture.
frigid
intensely cold

Alaska is in the frigid zone.
fritter
waste

He could not apply himself to any task and frittered away his time in idle (without purpose, pointless) conversation.
frivolous
lacking in seriousness; self-indulgently carefree; relatively unimportant

Though Nancy enjoyed Bill's frivolous, lighthearted companionship, she sometimes wondered whether he could ever be serious.
frolicsome
prankish; gay

The frolicsome puppy tried to lick the face of its master.
frond
fern leaf; palm or banana leaf

After the storm the beach was littered with the fronds of palm trees.
fructify
bear fruit

This peach tree should fructify in three years.
fulcrum
support on which a lever rests

If we use this stone as a fulcrum and the crowbar as a lever, we may be able to move this boulder.
fulsome
disgustingly excessive

His fulsome praise of the dictator annoyed his listeners.
furor
frenzy; great excitement

The story of her embezzlement of the funds created a furor on the stock exchange.
furtive
stealthy; sneaky

The boy gave a furtive look at his classmate's test paper.
fusilade
simultaneous firing or outburst (of missiles, questions, etc.)

Tchaikovsky's 1812 Overture concludes with a thunderous fusilade of cannon fire.
fusion
union; coalition

The opponents of the political party in power organized a fusion of disgruntled groups and became an important element in the election.
gadfly
animal-biting fly; an irritating person

Like a gadfly, he irritated all the guests at the hotel; within forty eight hours, everyone regarded him as an annoying busybody.
gait
manner of walking or running; speed

The lame man walked with an uneven gait.
gale
windstorm; gust of wind; emotional outburst (laughter, tears).

The Weather Channel warned vieweres about a rising gale, with winds of up to 60 mph.
gall
bitterness; nerve;

The knowledge of his failure filled him with gall.

annoy; chafe

Their taunts galled him.
galleon
large sailing ship

The Spaniards pinned their hopes on the galleon, the large warship; the British, on the smaller and faster pinnace.
galvanize
stimulate by shock; stir up

The entire nation was galvanized into strong military activity by the news of the attack on Pearl Harbor.
gambol
skip; leap playfully

Watching children gamboling in the park is a pleasant experience
gamely
in a spirited manner; with courage

Because he had fought gamely against a much superior boxer, the crowd gave him a standing ovation when he left the arena.
gargoyle
waterspout carved in groteque figures on a building

The gargoyles adorning the Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris are amusing in their grotesqueness.
garnish
decorate

Parsley was used to garnish the boiled potato.
gastronomy
science of preparing and serving good food

One of the by-products of his trip to Europe was his interest in gastronomy; he enjoyed preparing and serving foreign dishes to his friends.
gauche
clumsy; boorish

Such remarks are gauche and out of place; you should apologize for making them.
gaunt
lean and angular; barren

His once-round face looked surprisingly gaunt after he had lost weight.
gavel
hammerlike tool; mallet.

"Sold!" cried the auctioneer, banging her gavel on the table to indicate she'd accepted the final bid.
gawk
stare foolishly; look in open-mouthed awe

The country boy gawked at the skyscrapers and neon lights of the big city.