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86 Cards in this Set

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Avalon
During the Middle Ages, this was thought to be a "perfect place" in the West. This demonstrated that people had considered the West as a land of opportunity.
Thomas Moore
In 1516, he wrote "Utopia" about the Americas. It shows that people thought of this place as good and full of opportunity.
"Utopia"
Thomas Moore
1516
Set in the Americas
Treaty of Tordesillas
Late 1400's
Pope Alexander VI drew a line of demarcation in the Americas for Spain and Portugal.
He had no idea what he was doing
This created empires
bullionism
Spain created a system of this in the New World, in which they would get gold and silver to buy goods from other countries.
Flaws:
Became dependant on the silver and gold and on the other countries
Didn't take time to build up important industries
Were supporting competing nations.
Still, prospered for a time.
Sir Humphrey Gilbert
English
wanted money from the New World and (b/c thought it was an island) hoped to find a Northwest Passage to the Orient.
Thought that if England could create and use colonies for exploration and the Passage, could control the world's economy. Very influential, esp. to Sir Walter Raleigh.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Influenced by his half brother Sir Humphrey Gilbert.
He wanted wealth and put together a group of investors to financially support a colony in the New World-- Roanoke Island. No one knows what happened to the inhabitants.
Roanoke Island
The first English colony in the New World
Set up by Sir Walter Raleigh
Inhabitants were completely gone when a ship came a few years later from England with supplies. Lost?Left?Indians?Disease?
Slows further colinization
Jamestown
First permanent English colony in the New World
Set up by a company for financial reasons. Also, b/c England was overpopulated, and they wanted to get away from primogeniture and the guild system
Almost failed b/c the men were aristocrats who were not used to working
Problems with the Indians, b/c started to encroach on their lands.
primogeniture
One thing the men who went to Jamestown wanted to get rid of
English tradition of inheritance to the eldest son.
Tied with the idea of opportunity in Jamestown
Guilds
System the men who went to Jamestown wanted to get away from
In England, set up b/c no shortage of labor.
Controlled quality and prices of goods
exclusive
Tied to idea of opportunity
John Rolfe
Colonist who introduced tobacco to Jamestown in 1619.
Married Pocahontas, establishing temporary peace with the Agonquian Indians.
House of Burgesses
In Virgina
1st "republican" body in English colonies
Not really republic, b/c domain of VA aristocracy
provided some political stability
Did what Parliament would do o/o neccessity.
Indentured Servants
Many black were indentured servants
worked 7 years in exchange for passage to New World
Didn't have much opportunity when free-- ex. House of Burgesses didn't want competition, so did not open up more land
Pocahontas
Algonquian Indian
Married Jamestown settler John Rolfe, establishing peace between the two groups temporarily
Scooby Congregation
Pilgrims
Pastor was Robert Brown
Robert Brown
Pilgrim pastor at Scooby Congregation
Refused to accept the Anglican Church b/c believed it was corrupted by the Catholic church.
This was heresy
His followers were persecuted
All went to the Netherlands at first, then to America
Edward Sandys
Pilgrim who negotiated with the Virginia Company
The company said the Pilgrims could migrate to a certain spot in America
William Bradford
Led the Pilgrims to the New World
Not a good navigator, led them 800 miles off
Landed at Plymouth, so had to create the Mayflower Compact to legitimize the colony-- Reflected CONSENT OF THE GOVERNED
Wrote the "History of the Plymouth Plantation" and believed that God had set America apart
Squanto
An Indian who helped the Pilgrims
Ex. He showed them how to use fertilizer
John Winthrop
Led many Puritans to Massachusettes because they thought the hardships of life made it harder for them to live a good life.
Manifest Destiny
The belief that Americans still have of themselves, that they have the right to expand and that God gave them the right, sometimes to tell others what to do.
the banns
When a Puritan couple who were engaged had had sex before they were married, they could confess in front of the church and be forgiven.
This happened often because their engagements were so long.
This showed that they adapted well to life's realities
Roger Williams
An outspoken critic of the Puritans who thought they had become corrupted
He demanded seperation of church and state, because he thought the state was bad for the church
He was exiled and went to Rhode Island
Anne Hutchinson
Challenged the Puritan belief that women couldn't speak publicly about doctrine
She also claimed God spoke directly to her
Moved and was later killed by Indians, which "proved" to the Puritans she had received her punishment
Halfway Covenant
A compromise the Puritans made later on that infuriated some of the traditional Puritans who thought that God would punish them for it.
It enable some non-Puritans to participate in government.
Salem Witch Trials
Many think this was a response to the frusteration Puritans were feeling
Most accused were widows, who had economic power and influence.
Many who confessed were exiled, freeing up property.
Reflected ETREME social anxiety, and was perhaps a last effort to cleanse society of "bad" people and to show God that they were trying.
malificium
Those who were accused of being witches were thought to hold this power-- the devil's power to do evil.
These people had made a deal with the devil and used the power to torment their neighbors.
William Phyp
Governor of Massachusetts who finally in 1693 puts an end to the Salem Witch Trials and pardons those who had been accused.
Quaker/Society of Friends
Set up Pennsylvania under William Penn
Pacifists
Believed in equality in the church (no hierarchy)
Were very tolerant to other religions coming in
Cotton Mather
A mix of tradition and the Enlightenmet
He was religiously traditional
He was, however, a member of the Royal Society, one of intellectuals (for instance--they defended the Copernican theory of the universe).
Championed smallpox inoculations (believed in "good science").
Captivity Narratives
Puritans
ex. John Williams' "Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion" about his experiences in and after the Deerfield Raid
John Williams
Wrote the captivity narrative "Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion" about the Deerfield Raid
Wife and some children killed by Indians
Daughter Eunice stayed with the Indians and refused to return home later in life
"Redeemed Captive Returning to Zion"
Captivity narrative by John Williams
About the Deerfield Raid
Wife and a couple children died
Daughter Eunice grew up with the Indians and refused to return home later in life
Deerfield Raid
Indians attacked John Williams and his family
Killed some and took the rest to Kahnawake
Kahnawake
After the Deerfield Raid, the survivors were taken to Kahnawake
Had been set up by Catholics
Aogonte
John Williams' daughter Eunice's Indian name
Means "planted as a person"
She refused to return home when she was older
John Smith
Jamestown settler who wrote "The History of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles"
Not very accurate, but the first history of the New World
"History of the Plymouth Plantation"
A history by William Bradford
used by many scholars
Story of the Pilgrims that created a national identity, one that believed Americans were a unique people
John Locke
English thinker of the Enlightenment
"life, liberty, and the persuit of property"
Men have a right to rebellion
Founding fathers "borrowed" above statement from him
Claude de Montesquieu
Enlightenment thinker who influenced America
Believed in the seperation of powers
Saybrook Platform
1708 Connecticut
Destroyed the idea of Congregationalism
Created a church hierarchy
Showed that religion is sometimes about power
Society for the Propegation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts
While other groups were fighting, this society wanted to bring the Gospel to the Indians
Humanism
The Enlightenment revived Humanism
Affected the educational system
confidence in human abilities
First Great Awakening
Early-Mid 1700's
Jonathan Edwards started the revival in Northampton, MA
Led to a split between the Old and New Lights
The Complete Housewife
A book in colonial America written for upper class women
One section was about meals
Showed that colonials tried to recreate their roles from England
George Whitefield
considered to be a "modern evangelist"
During the Great Awakening
So persuasive, even moved Franklin to give money
Ben Franklin
Enlightenment thinker
Proved to England there was intellectualism in America
Invented Franklin Stove, birfocles, etc...
Started JUNTA, "study group" that talked about many different things
Stimulated intellectual growth in America
JUNTA
Intellectual society
In Philadelphia
Set up by Franklin
Talked about everything, not just science
John Peter Zenger
His newspaper published an artical critical of a politician
Hamilton defended him
His case decided that he was not liable if it was true.
Set precident for right to criticize the goerment
Edward Braddock
Colonial general in French and Indian War
Failed to take strategic spot on Ohio River
Caused many Americans to loose their confidence
William Pitt
Britain's sec'y of state during French and Indian War
Determined to win the war at any cost
Policies upset colonies: Impressment and Brit soldiers could take what they wanted w/o reimbursement
Later changed these policies
Later became pm and wanted direct representation, but died before put into effect
Impressment
One of Pitt's policies during French and Indian War
Forced recruitment of colonials
Later changed to let the colonial assemblies deal with recruitment. Made colonials think they'd forced the change (not true)
Policy angered the colonials
James Wolfe
British commander during the French and Indian War
Took Quebec in the "third" phase of the war
Beginning of the end of American's involvement in the War
Monteal
Commanded the French during the battle of Quebec.
Defeated there
King George III
After the French and Indian War, made peace with France (to Pitt's dispair)
Forced Pitt's resignation
Peace of Paris
1763
After the French and Indian War
France gave much of its territory to Britain, including their Canadian territory and most East of the Mississippi
Proclamation of 1763
Britain drew a line in America saying the colonists (for now) could not go past it
Angered the colonists b/c they needed new soil
Sugar Act
passed b/c of Britain's debt after the French and Indian War
Meant to raise a small amount of revenue
Angered the colonists b/c:
Raised revenue
Enforced
SO the colonists smuggle
Writs of Assistance
Because the colonists were smuggling b/c of Sugar Act
general search warrents
Accused were not tried before a jury of their peers
Currency Act
Prohibited colonists from printing their own currency, which they'd been used to doing
Angered colonists, b/c didn't think Britain should be stepping into this area
Stamp Act
1765
Tax on all papers
Colonists angry b/c this taxed everyone
Said they had no representation in Parliament (Patrick Henry and James Otis)
Really affected the press and attornies, the most influential groups
Fostered revolutionary activity
Set up Stamp Act Congress to repeal Act. Act never even goes into effect, but colonists think it is b/c of them
Patrick Henry
Argued in the VA Resolves that the Stamp Act was unjust, because should only pay taxes from the VA Assembly
Virginia Resolves
By Patrick Henry
Argued Stamp Act was unjust since colonists should only pay taxes from the Virgina Assembly
Virtual Representation
In response to people like James Otis and Patrick Henry in the colonies
Parliament argued theirs was a system of virtual representation-- they represented the empire as a whole
If people accepted this, negated Otis' and Henry's argument
Sam Adams
Propagandest
Helped found the Sons of Liberty
Wealthy and influential to spurr on the Revolution
Also created the Committees of Correspondence and was a major instigator in the Boston Tea Party
Sons of Liberty
Set up in part by Sam Adams for the Revolution
Wealthy, influential people--the brains of the revolution
The Loyal Nine
Middle Class
Translated the arguments of the Sons of Liberty
Had daily interraction with the lower classes/workers
Backbone of the Revolution
North and South End Mobs
"hands" of the Revolution
lower class
had fought before, now came together
ex. went to Andrew Oliver's house to intimidate him (also hated his affluent lifestyle)
Andrew Oliver
A "stamp seller"
Angered colonists b/c of Stamp Act
Mobs tried to intimidate him
Andrew Oliver
"stmp seller"
Because of the stamp act, the colonial mobs went to his house and tried to intimidate him not to do his job
Thomas Hutchinson
A governor of Massachussets
Mobs went to his house to intimidate him before the Boston Tea Party
Stamp Act Congress
Set up by the colonists to repeal the Stamp Act, which never actually went into effect
Act never goes into effect, and the colonists mistakenly think it was because of them
George Grenville
Stamp Act never even goes into effect under him
Replaced by the Marquis of Rockingham, who repeals the Act as unwise
Marquis of Rockingham
Replaced George Grenville
Repealed the Stamp Act as unwise
Declaratory Act
Parliament had the right to tax and legislate the colonies in all cases whatsoever.
Reminded the colonies who were in charge
Charles Townshend
Replaced William Pitt as pm
Had heald post of Chancellor of Exchequer
Started the Townshend Acts:
1. a tarriff on goods imported into the colonies
2. Modified the legal system in the Boards of Customs Comissioners
Caused the colonists to boycott goods, and caused non-importation
Townshend Acts
1. Tarriff on goods imported into the colonies
2. Boards of Customs Commissioners, who were paid by the fines they levied
Colonists boycott goods under the Acts, and merchants start non-importation, which impinged on the right of personal property
Boards of Customs Commissioners
Set up in the Townshend Acts
were paid by the fines they levied
non-importation
colonial merchants started this in response to the Townshend Acts
Many colonists angry b/c impinged on their right to property and right to choose
John Dickenson
Wrote "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in response to the Townshend Acts
Argued that Parliament could regulate trade, but NOT to raise revenue (Like the Sugar, Stamp, and Townshend Acts)
"Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania"
Written by John Dickenson in response to the Townshend Acts
Argued that Parliament had a right to regulate trade, but NOT to raise revenue
Boston Massacre
1770
Bostonians stopped to torment British guards
Probably, one British guard slipped and his musket went off
Riot
More Brits killed than colonists
Colonists blamed the Brits, saying it was a sign of their hatred towards the colonists
Britain tried to diffuse the anger by an "investigation," believing those British troops to be expendable
Called "Boston Massacre" by colonists-- good propagandists
John Adams
Actually defended the British troops after the Boston Massacre
Believed a society could not function under the will of the masses.
Defended the idea of lawful behavior
Committees of Correspondace
Created by Sam Adams
Beginnings of sending out the call to revolt and unite colonial opposition
Tea Act
Replaced the Townshend Acts
To help East India Tea co.