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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
According to Baddeley & Hitch (1974) working memory involves a workspace to ________ , ________ and ____ information.
A workspace to hold, process and use information;

Baddeley, A.D., Hitch, G.J. (1974). Working Memory, In G.A. Bower (Ed.). Recent advances in learning and motivation (Vol. 8., pp 47-90). New York: Academic Press.
Working memory is demonstrated by _________ information in the workspace to guide behavior without reliable, external cues.
Using
The 1974 Baddeley & Hitch model of working memory involves three components including a) ___________ _________ _________which in turn manages two ‘slave systems’ b) ___________ and c) ___________.
a)Central Executive System (CES); b)Articulatory or phonological loop system (ALS); c)Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSSP)
The Central Executive System (CES) which coordinates and schedules mental operations, processing and rehearsal has one major limitation which is _________ .
Capacity: Performance will breakdown as the demands on the system increase (i.e., the CES/ Working memory can only focus on one task at a time which has a limited span {average 7 digits})
The Phonological / Articulatory Loop System (ALS) (the second of the three component model) involves a _____________ (PSS) which stores acoustic or speech based material for a few seconds unless it is rehearsed by the ______________ (ARM) which consolidates verbal information into longterm memory.
a) Phonological Short-term Store (PSS) and b) an Articulatory Rehearsal Mechanism (ARM)
The Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSSP) creates a space to construct, and manipulate visual images and mental maps. It encodes v/s information into short term memory by separating stimuli/information into __________ and __________ storage areas.
a) Visual (shape, color, texture) and b) spatial (location)
When you can’t get a song out of your head, this is probably because your ___________ (ARM) continues to be rehearsed in a constant loop. You can ‘stop the insanity’ by distracting your attention away from the tune. This process results in rapid forgetting or ________.
a) ARM or Articulatory Rehearsal Mechanism; b) Decay
In 2000, Baddeley extended the working memory model by adding a 4th component, the ________ ________, which integrates phonological, visual and spatial information. This component is considered to be episodic because it binds all data into one, temporal, episodic representation.
Episodic Buffer

Baddeley, A.D. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417-423.
Where is working memory in the brain?
Because it’s a multimodal system it can be found throughout the neocortex. Basically, it depends on which function is being searched (see subsequent cards for further details).
Where is the Central Executive System (CES) of working memory located?
Prefrontal cortex
Where is the Visuospatial Sketchpad (VSSP) of working memory located?
Non-human primate studies suggest prefrontal cortex near the principle sulcus and arcuate regions.
Where is the Articulatory Loop System (ALS) of working memory located?
IN GENERAL = Language dominant hemisphere (Left);
SPECIFICALLY:
a) Auditory Verbal = possibly in the left perisylivan region
b) Phonological Input = Left supramarginal gyrus
c) Subvocal Rehearsal system of ALS = Broca’s area near left frontal cortex
Cowan (2005) developed an alternative to the Baddeley-Hitch model believing working memory to be a subcomponent of long-term memory. Working memory is conceptualized into two tiers including ________ __________ (basically an infinite number of event related memories) and _______ __ ________ (subject under focus).
a) Activated Representations
b) Focus of Attention

1) Cowan, N. (2005) Working memory capacity. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
2) Cowan, N. (2001) The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87-185.
More recent working memory research has focused on capacity and storage. Although the average adult’s digit span is _____ digits, people have been known to remember spans of up to 80 digits by way of practicing encoding strategies such as _________.
a) Seven
b) Chunking

Ericsson, K.A., & Kintsch, W. (1995) Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211-245.
Ericsson & Kintsch (1995) have also expanded thinking about working memory, realizing that only very limited amounts of information are actually held in working memory. Most verbal information that is read is actually encoded into ____________ memory by appreciation of complex relationships or ideas expressed in thoughts and written language. This relationship between working memory in reading can be thought of as “_____________________”.
a) Long-term memory
b) Long-term-Working Memory

Ericsson, K.A., & Kintsch, W. (1995) Long-term working memory. Psychological Review, 102, 211-245.