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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what kind of bacteria is streptococcus pneumoniae
gram positive diplocci (lancet shaped with points outward)
what kind of hemolytic morphology is step pneumonae
alpha-hemolytic (yields a cloudy green zone that contains intact red cells with chemically altered green pigment)
the most used test to make the distinction between strep viridans and strep pneumoniae demostrates pneumoniae's sensitivity to
nearly 100 types of pneumococci are identified by their antigenically distinct
the capsule of strep pneu can be identified using what reaction
quellung reaction (specific Ab reacts with the pneumococcal capsule, the capsule swells enough to allow the difference to be seen microscopically.
pneumococci are common inhabitants of the
the most frequent form of bacterial pneumonia
Pneumococcal penumonia
why is the lower respiratory tract not infected more by pneumococcal infection
1. aspiration of mucus is rare
2. when it does happen the cilia of the respiratory epithelium are always driving a stream of mucus up the respiratory tract
3. alveolar macrophages can phagocytoze a limited number of bacteria
what happens to the pneumococci when they are phagocytosed
they are killed (they only grow extracellularly)
what is the key component of pathogenesis of strep pneumoniae
"surface phatogocytosis"
in the absence of antibody, macrophages succeed in phagocytosis only when they can "trap" the organisms against a surface
in the alveoli what might make "surface phagocytosis" difficult
edema - works better with "dry"alveolus
how does consolidation and lobar pneumonia develop in a strep pneumoniae infection?
bacteria escape surface phagocytosis. multiply. serous fluid enters alveoli. hinders surface phagocytosis. PMNs enter infected alveoli producing consolidation and this proceeds throughout lobe
what two things halt the process of consolidation and lobar pneumonia development in strep pneum
antibody and antibiotics
in strep pneumonaie the sudden onste of shaking chills and prolonged high fever with severe pleuitic pain and cough is accompanied by what colared sputum
rusty - blood tinged
will leukocyte numbers increase or decrease with infection of strep pneu
increase (leukocytosis)
a dramatic drop of fever and sense of well being woudl be due to
onset of immune response (even in untreated cases)
what is one critical factor in natural recovery from strep pneumo and in immunity
opsonizing antibody to type specific polysaccharide capsule (those pts with defect in humoral immunity are at much higher risk)
what organ plays a major role in combating bacteremia
spleen. those pts with sickle cell anemia or who have been splenectomized are at high risk
why is sensitivity testing required for pneumococcal p.
multiple antibiotic resistance (including penecillin) is frequent
microscopic examination of what kind of culture helps diagnosis of strep pneu
sputum - but does not determine type.
in children pneumococci play a prominent role in what kind of infections
middle ear and can cause severe or fatal meningitis
The pneumococcal vaccine (first and second one) prevent what kind of pneumococcal infecation
invasive (bacteremic disease) and prevents pneumococcal meningitis but does not protect against community aquired peumococcal pneumonia
a small gram positive rod distanlty related to diphtheroids but beta hemolytic
listeria monocytogenes
listeria monocytogenes is found
in soil and water as well as infected animals and humans
how might a human become infected with listeria monocytogenes
infected food (dairy?)
why is listeria monocytogenes a potent food borne pathogen
grows well in the refrigerator
why are pregnant women more susceptible to listeriosis
decline in cell-mediated immunity (immunosuppressed individuals are also at high risk)
infection of pregnant woman by listeria moncytogenes can resut in? how might this differ in early term vs. late term
bacteremia, and transplacental infection
early term: abortion, stillbirth
late term: newborn may die of early onset neonatal septicemia and meningitis
adult infections with listeria monocytogenes include
meningitis, septicemia, urethritis, and endocarditis
how might a pregnant woman or immunized supressed individual avoid infection of listeria monocytogenes
avoid raw milk and unprocessed soft cheese (brie, feta etc..)cottage cheese, cream cheese and yogurt are safe
is listeria monocytogenes intracellular or extracellular pathogen
facultative intracellular
how does l. monocytogenes around into the cytoplasm of the cell
polymerized host cell actin to to power its intracellular motility and gets from cell to cell w/o geoing through the extracellular medium
anthrax is caused by
bacillus anthracis
what kind of bacteria is bacilus anthracis
gram positive spre forming
some of the pathology of bacillus anthracis is a result of anthrax exotoxin which require what to enter mammalian cell
bacterial protein called the "protective antigen" because ab to this antigen protect against disease
all three pathways for human infection by bacillus anthracis are aused by what and come from what
caused by spores coming from animals
in cutaneous antrax bacterial growth results in what
painless vesicle with surrounding edema
the lsion produced by cutaneous anthrax progresses to produce a black scab called

this is the least serious anthrax infection
if untreated the cutaneous lesion caused by b. anthracis may lead to fatal
what is the most common and least serious presentation of anthrax
cutaneous anthrax
the rare intestinal anthrax results from
ingestion spres usually in meat
in inhalation anthrax the inhaled spores are phagocytosed by
pulmonary macrophages
where do the inhaled anthrax spores germinate and produce exotoxins
regional lymph nodes
an early sign of inhalation anthrax is
enlargement of mediastinal lymph nodes
is there a vaccine for anthrax
yes - consists of B. anthracis proteins - used for at-risk populations such as veterinarians and troops threatened by biological warfare - it is effective and safe