Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/47

Click to flip

47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
what kind of infections ar characterized by foul-smelling discharge, gas in necrotic tissue
anaerobic infectons
most aerobic or facultatively aerobic organisms involve a single species - what about anaerobic infections
mixed
Bacteriodes fragilis infections are usually below the waist (lower GI and genital area) are usually resistant to
Penicillin
Infections in this region are usually penicillin sensitive, gram positive cocci, and mixed anaerobic infections
oral infections
infections in this area are usually penicillin resistance, gram negative, mixed anaerobic infections
intraabdominal infections
identifying an characterizing clinically important anaerobic bacteria by the production of unusual fatty acids is done by
gas chromatopgraphy
most common anaerobic Gram negative rod
Bacteriodes fragilis
found in large numbers in the large intestine and can resist bacteriocidal action of bile. does not require very strict anaerobic conditions
B. fragilis
what two anaerobes cause 80% of anaerobic septicemias
C. perfringens and B. Fragilis
T or F - Bacteremias are often caused by anaerobs
False (only 10%)
the most important anaerobe which is penicillan resistant (know this!!)
B. fragilis
what is the major virulence factor for B. fragilis
capsule
infections by B. fragilis are more severe when they are in combination with what other bacteria
E.coli
most serious etiologic agent of periodontal disease and occasionally found also in genital infecitons

Gram - Rod - non motile
Prevotella (Bacteroides) melaninogenicus
Prevotella melaninogenicus is what kind of gram bacteria
gram negative rod
name derives from black pigment (hemin - a precurser for cytorchrome synthesis is formed in colonies grown on blood agar plates
prevotella melaninogenicus
(requires hemin for growth)

peniicillin sensitive
peridontal disease and genital
Gram - rod
penicillin sensitive
involved in peridontal disease and genital infections
Gram negative rods which have tapered ends
Fusobacterium
Fusobacterium: penicillin and O2 sensitive
sensitive to penicillin and O2

involved in oral infections as well as pleuropulmonary infections and is needle shaped tapered rod
needle shaped tapered rod
important in oral infections, lung abscesses, and other pleuropulmonary infections
fusobacterium
present in large numbers in normal large intestine, especially in breast fed infants
Bifidobacterium

Gram + rod - no spores
Bifidobacterium
Propionibacterium (diphtheroid)
Lactobacillus
Actinomyces
are all what kind of bacteria
non spore forming Anaerobic Gram positive rods
(common cause of dentla abscess - usually mixed)
found normally in the oral pharynx and GI tract
Sulfer granules are yellow granules seen in leasions that are composed of microcolonies of this bacteria
Actinomyces
do not submit what kind of cultures if testing for anaerobes
fecal or oral
thioglycollate broth
thioglycollate is a chemical reducing agent that removes oxygen from liquid media and is a common type of anaerobic media
penicillin is used for what kind of anaerobic infections
above the diaphragm
what is a static drug used agains anaerobic infections
chloramphenicol
Flagyl is the trade name for this antibiotic used against anaerobic infections
Metronidazole

fragments DNA
if mixed aerobe-anaerobi infections are suspected what antibiotics are used
aminoglycosides (e.g gentimycin) in conjunction with antibiotic with anaerobic covereage Clindamycin and Cefoxitin are both used for anaerobic infections
what is the only treatment for abscesses
surgical
Bacterial outgrowth in the small bowel due to partial obstruction or decreased motility can lead to fat malabsorption and what kind of deficiency
B12
byproducts of anaerobic metabolism are gas and
short chain fatty acids (reason for foul smelling discharge)
obligate anaerobes use what instead of O2 as electron acceptor for energy
nitrogen and other inorganics
cause for acne
propionibacterium

gram + rod which is normal on skin and a common cause of blood contamination

is aerotolerant

causes rare endocarditis in immunocompramised patients
blood contamination - normal on skin
anaerobe - important in pathogenic oral and GI tract
gram positive rod

also cause of cervico-facial or dental infections
actinomyces

cause of cervico-facial or dental infections
sulfer granules (yellow) in culture
Gram postive cocci - oral, GI, and vaginal tracts - mixed infections
peptostreptococcus - obligate anaerobe
widely involved in infections with other anaerobes
three things that would lower the oxidation-reduction potential of a tissue
1. wound
2. impaired blood supply
3. tisue necrosis
microaerophilic organisms mean they are
like a little O2 but not too much
two most common organisms causing ANAEROBIC septicemias
B. fragilis and C. perfringens

note: only 10% of septicemias are caused by anaerobes though!!
spirochetes and prevotella are serious etiologic agents of
peridontal disease
black pigment
prevotella
involved in cervico-facial infections (oral and dental) and abdominal infections (GI tract)
Actinomyces
sulfer granules
actinomyces
what kind of gm stain - actinomyces
gram positive non-spore forming rod
resembles streptococci in morphology (gram + in chains) BUT obligate anaerobe
peptostretococcus
peptostreptococcus are normal flora of the
mouth, urogenital and G.I tract
how do antibiotic sensitivity assays for anaerobes and aerobes
not as reliable for anerobes
what kind of drugs are more effective against B.fragilis than penecillin
newer cephalosporins e.g cefoxitin