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49 Cards in this Set

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3 stages of binary fission to generate one generation?
-cell elongation: chromosome duplicates, one copy for each daughter cell.
-septum formation
-Completion of septum (cell separation)
What are Fts proteins and what is their function?
Filamentous temperature-sensitive proteins, needed for cell division in all prokaryotes, interacts to form the divisome.
What is a divisome?
Cell division apparatus
FtsZ function?
forms ring around center of cell.
related to tubulin
ZipA function?
anchor that connects FtsZ ring to cytoplasmic membrane
FtsA function?
helps connect FtsZ ring to membrane and also recruits other divisome proteins
FtsK function?
protein mediates separation of chromosomes in daughter cells
What do Min proteins do?
initiates the FtsZ ring formation in the middle of cell (facilitates location of FtsZ ring)
What is the function of MreB?
major shape determining factor in prokaryotes.
creates rod shape
How does MreB direct the morphology of the cell?
localizes synthesis of new peptidoglycan and other cell wall components to specific locations along cylinder of rod shaped cell during growth
what is a wall band?
junction between new and old peptidoglycan
What do autolysins do?
Creates small openings in wall at the beginning of the FtsZ ring.
What is bactroprenol?
carrier molecule that plays major role in insertion of peptidoglycan precursors
What are glycolases?
Enzymes that interact with bactroprenol.
Inserts cell wall precursor into growing points of cell wall and catalyze glycosidic bond formation
Function of glycolase?
insert cell wall precursors to growing points of cell.
catalyze glycosidic bond formation.
What is transpeptidation?
Final step in cell wall synthesis by forming peptide cross-links
What inhibits transpeptidation?
antibiotic penicillin-interferes with formation of glycosidic bonds
What is a batch culture?
closed system microbial culture of fixed volume
What are the phases that characterize a batch culture?
Lag phase
exponential phase
stationary phase
death
What is a continuous culture?
open system microbial culture of fixed culture
What is an example of a continuous culture?
chemostat
How would you control the growth rate and population of culture in a continuous culture?
Dilution rate: rate at which fresh medium is upped in
Quality of media (rich/poor media)
What is the great plate anomaly?
when you see tons of cells(from natural samples) under microscope, but you have trouble plating
What are mesophiles?
organisms that have midrange temperature optima.
What are extremophiles?
organisms that evolved to grow under hot/cold conditions
What is an example of a continuous culture?
chemostat
How would you control the growth rate and population of culture in a continuous culture?
Dilution rate: rate at which fresh medium is upped in
Quality of media (rich/poor media)
What is the great plate anomaly?
when you see tons of cells(from natural samples) under microscope, but you have trouble plating
What are mesophiles?
organisms that have midrange temperature optima.
What are extremophiles?
organisms that evolved to grow under hot/cold conditions
What are psychrophiles?
organisms with cold temp optima
what are psychotolerant organisms?
organisms can grow at 0 degrees, but prefer 20-40 degrees
How do psychrophiles adapt?
evolve enzymes that function optimally in cold.
Have modified cytoplasmic membranes with high unsaturated fat content (kink)
What are thermophiles?
organisms with growth temp optima at 45-80 degrees.
what are hyperthermophiles?
organisms with optima > 80 degrees
How do bacteria adapt to high temp?
lipids with saturated fatty acids (not kinky, more solid membrane)
How to archaea adapt to high temperatures?
lipid monolayer rather than bilayer
What pH do neutrophiles grow best at?
6 to 8
What are osmophiles?
organisms living in high sugar solute environments- low water availability
What are xenophiles?/
organisms that can grow in dry env.
what are facultative env?
can live with or without oxygen
Do aerotolerant anaerobes use oxygen?
No. Can tolerate oxygen and grow in its presence but can't use it.
what are microaerophiles?
can use oxygen only when present in low levels.
Where would a facultative aerobe be located in tube? (oxic/anoxic zone)
concentrated in oxic zone. dispersed evenly in anoxic zone.
where will microaerophiles be found in tube?
anoxic zone near oxic zone at top
Where will anaerobes be found in tube?
At bottom of anoxic zone.
Where will aerotolerant anaerobes be found in tube?
dispersed evenly thoughout oxic and anoxic zone.
What can be done to create environment to grow anaerobic microbes?
chamber with catalyst that removes oxygen/chemical to reduce Oxygen
What forms a divisome?
FtsZ, ZipA, and FtsA proteins