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11 Cards in this Set

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What are the general characteristics of Helicobacter pylori
Motile, spiral shaped, micro-aerophilic. Urease positive
What diseases are caused by Helicobacter pylori
Chronic gastritis, duodenal and peptic ulcers. Risk factor for gastric carcinoma. Greater than 90% of peptic ulcer disease is caused by H. pylori
How is Helicobacter pylori transmitted
Oral ingestion. Bacteria is in human fecal material, dental plaque, and gastric contents
What is the pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori
Penetration of gastric mucus. Inflammatory response occurs in the epithelium and lamina propria and vacuolation of gastric epithelial cells is seen. Acute and chronic inflammation leads to ulceration
What are the virulence factors of Helicobacter pylori
Urease; Flagella; Vacuolating cytotoxin; Mucinase and phospholipases; Superoxide dismutase and catalase; Cytotoxic-associated protein (CagA)
What is the importance of urease in Helicobacter pylori
Allows the bacteria to survive the low pH of the stomach. May also damage epithelial cells
What is the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori
Present in 40-60% of people in industrialized countries. May remain asyptomatic for decades. Husbands and wives rarely exchange strains.
How is Helicobacter pylori diagnosed
Biopsy and culture of gastric mucosa; Urease breath test; IgG or IgA response to bacteria
How is Helicobacter pylori treated
Combination of Amoxicillin (or tetracyclin) + Metronidazole + Omeprazole
What diseases are caused by Vibrio vulnificus
Rapidly progressive wound infections; self-limiting gastroenteritis; life-threatening septicemia
What is the epidemiology of Vibrio vulnificus
Most common in coastal areas; Acquired by eating raw oysters; Individuals with liver disease, iron overload disorders, diabetes, immunodeficiency, or malignancy are at highest risk of primary septicemia