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8 Cards in this Set

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What is a synergistic response
The combination of two antibiotics is greater than the sum. The combination of carbenicilin and gentamycin is a good example
What type of antibiotic should be given to immunocompromised patients
Bactericidal
What are some examples that limit successful chemotherapy
Intracellular location of bacteria; Abcess formation and necrosis, leading to decreased circulation; Presence of foreign bodies and obstructions
What is an intrinsic mechanism of antibiotic resistance
The target on which the antibiotic works is missing from the bacterium. Vancomycin targets synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer, so don't use with gram negative bacteria
What are acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
Bacteria acquire a mutation or factor that allows it to escape the antibiotic activity. This can be from a spontaneous mutation (streptomycin targeting 30S), or from horizonal gene transfer (plasmids and transposable elements)
What is the selective pressure mechanism of antibiotic resistance
The process by which treatment with an antibiotic selects for those bacteria that have acquired resistance. This is why antibiotics should not be overused
What are five mechanisms of antibiotic resistance
1. Enzymatic inactivation/alteration of the antibiotic
2. Inadequate or decreased uptake or penetration of the antibiotic into the microbe
3. Active/increased efflux of the antibiotic out of the microbe
4. Alteration of target antibiotics
5. Pathways that bypass the reaction inhibited by the antibiotics
Why doesn't the plate dilution assay for the determination of antimicrobial activity allow one to determine whether or not the action of a given drug is bactericidal or bacteriostatic
The method is only meant to inhibit visible growth. The mechanism of inhibition (cell death or growth inhibition) is not known