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20 Cards in this Set

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Define chemotherapy
The treatment of diseases with antibiotics or other chemical agents
Define antibiotics
Antimicrobial agents of microbial origin.
Define chemotherapeutic agents
Chemically synthesized antimicrobial agents
What are the characteristics of antibiotics
Low molecular weight; specific spectrum of antimicrobial activity (broad or narrow); Exert effects by a specific mechanism
What are the differences between antibiotics and disinfectants
Disinfectants are nonspecific with respect to both mechanism of action and spectrum of activity. They are also not tolerated by the host
What is the basis of selective toxicity
Absence of the target from the host; permeability differences; structural differences in the target. Also, antimicrobial agents must be effective against bacteria at concentrations that are not deleterious to the host
What considerations must antibiotic therapy include
Effect of the drug on the microbe; effect of the microbe on the drug; effect of the microbe on the host; drug-host interactions
What are bacteriostatic agents
Growth inhibitory antibiotics. They generally act as competitive inhibitors
What are bactericidal agents
Lethal antibiotics, which may or may not involve cell lysis. They are only effective against actively growing cells
What does plate dilution measure
The minimal inhibitory concentration. It tests the sensitivities of several isolates to a single concentration of a single antibiotic
What does Tube dilution measure
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), as well as the minimal lethal dose (MLD). Tests the sensitivity of a single strain to a range of concentrations of a single antibiotic
What does disc diffusion measure
The minimal lethal dose (MLD). Determines the sensitivity of a single strain to a variety of different antibiotics
What circumstances indicate combined antibiotic therapy
Chronic infections, to prevent or delay the emergence of resistant organisms; Emergency situations; Mixed infections; To achieve synergistic effects
What is an indifferent (or additive) response
The response to a drug combination that is essentially the sum of the two antibiotics being used. The benefit of the second drug is often not clinically significant
What is an antagonistic antibiotic response
The combination of two antibiotics is less than the sum of the two independently. Usually caused by interaction of a bactericidal drug (streptomycin) with a bacteriostacic drug (chloramphenicol)
What does Tube dilution measure
The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), as well as the minimal lethal dose (MLD). Tests the sensitivity of a single strain to a range of concentrations of a single antibiotic
What does disc diffusion measure
The minimal lethal dose (MLD). Determines the sensitivity of a single strain to a variety of different antibiotics
What circumstances indicate combined antibiotic therapy
Chronic infections, to prevent or delay the emergence of resistant organisms; Emergency situations; Mixed infections; To achieve synergistic effects
What is an indifferent (or additive) response
The response to a drug combination that is essentially the sum of the two antibiotics being used. The benefit of the second drug is often not clinically significant
What is an antagonistic response
The combination of two antibiotics is less than the sum of the two independently. Usually caused by interaction of a bactericidal drug (streptomycin) with a bacteriostatic drug (chloramphenicol)