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193 Cards in this Set

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Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
caused by prions
Prions
Protein infectious particles
they are protease resistant
typically transmissible through infected/contaminated tissues
incubation period of TSE's
6mos to 40yrs
virino hypothesis
PrP (res) may serve as a receptor for a small virus in the form of nucleic acid
protein-only hypothesis
PrP (res) is the predominant macromolecule and the interactions between abnormal and normal proteins lead to the formaiton of additional abnormal protein (similar to amyloid)
inactivation of prions
they are extremely resistant to it
1 N NaOH, 20K ppm of bleach, or autoclaving in water at 134 Celsius are effective
TSE - clinical disease presentation
chronic, neurologic condition
TSE- diagnosis
based on observation of clinical signs
ELISA from retropharyngeal lymph nodes
follow with confirmatory tests (immunohistochemistry or Western blot on tissue obtained from obex portion of the brain stem)
TSE - Western Blot
relies on use of a protease to "digest" sensitive PrP(sen) leaving PrP(res), when present, to show up on protein analysis
TSE- Sheep and Goats
PrP(sc) is abbreviation
disease = Scrapie
incubation = 2-4 years
clinical course = 6-12 mo
Scrapie transmission
horizontal transmission by ingestion of infectious tissues is likely
may be some genetic susceptibility in goats
Scrapie signs
apparent "itchiness" (pruritis) evidenced by incessant scratching/scraping of the skin; hyperexcitability; ataxia; loss of appetite; death (typically due to starvation
Scrapie diagnosis
clinical signs
ELISA on retropharyngeal lymph nodes
confirmation using immunohistochemistry or western blot
Scrapie treatment
none
Scrapie control/prevention
surveillance
destruction of infected animals (sheep and goats) and bloodlines (goats)
destruction of goats regardless of +/- clinical signs that are in contact with infected sheep
TSE - Cattle
PrP (bse) is abbreviation
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
BSE transmission
horizontal transmission likely via consumption of contaminated tissue/protein products (meat and bone meal)
BSE - incubation period
2-4 yrs
BSE-clinical signs
over 6-12 months
aggressiveness; hyperexcitability; headrubbing/nose licking; ataxia/hypermetria (exaggerated gait); gradual weight loss despite normal appetite; eventually unable to eat; death due to starvation
BSE - diagnosis
same as scrapie
BSE - treatment
none
BSE - control/prevention
don't feed rendered ruminant byproducts back to cattle
do not slaughter downer cows for consumption
screen downers for BSE
do not slaughter cattle using air injection stunning
do not consume specified risk materials (SRM, brain, spinal cord, lymph nodes)
surveillance of cattle > 30mo of age at slaughter
BSE - zoonosis
possible - known as variant Creutzfeld-Jacobs Disease (vCJD)
TSE - Deer and Elk (cervids)
PrP(cwd)
disease - chronic wasting disease (CWD)
incubation period: 1.5-3yrs
clinical course over 4-12 months
horizontal transmission proposed
endemic in rocky mountains
Chronic Wasting Disease - clinical signs
ataxia, pacing,head tremors, salivation, weight loss, death
chronic wasting disease - control/prevention
surveillance of deer at hunting check stations (ELISA of retropharyngeal lymph nodes)
ban the movement of live cervids
population reduction through hunting (deer especially)
test all farmed cervids greater than 16 months that die
Chronic wasting disease - zoonosis
potential exists (unconfirmed)
so, debone meat, avoid contacct with brain, spinal cord, and lymphoid tissues when processing carcasses (wear gloves), have the retropharyngeal LN tested for CWD
Mycoplasmatales
no cell wall, pleomorphic, unable to gram stain, circular DNA, facultative anaerobes, chemoheterotrophs, plasma membrane has high sterol content, difficult to grow, fried egg colonies on plates, immunoevasive, often followed by secondary bacterial infections
Bird - Mycoplasma species
M. gallisepticum (MG)
M. synoviae (MS)
M. meleagridis (MM)
M. iowae (MI)
through what type of transmission are bird Mycoplasma spp. transmitted
vertical and horizontal transmission
what type of clinical signs do the bird Mycoplasma spp. cause
upper and lower respiratory tract infections
joint swelling
reproductive problems
How do you diagnose bird Mycoplasma spp.
serology (acute and convalescent sera)
PCR
Culture
How do you treat Mycoplasma spp. infections in birds
Tylosin
Oxytet
Sulfas
What are the control and prevention strategies for Mycoplasma spp. in birds?
biosecurity
quarantine new birds
eliminate new carriers
vaccinate (MG)
dip eggs
buy from NPIP certified flocks
Which Mycoplasma spp. in birds can you vaccinate against?
Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Pig Mycoplasma spp.
M. hyorhinus
M. hyosynoviae
M. hyopneumoniae
(all hyo...)
How is Mycoplasma transmitted in pigs?
horizontal transmission
What type of clinical signs does Mycoplasma spp. cause in pigs?
upper and lower respiratory disease
swollen joints
How do you diagnose Mycoplasma spp. infections in pigs?
serology
PCR
culture
How do you treat pigs for Mycoplasma infections?
Tylosin
Oxytetracycline
Macrolides
Fluoroquinolones
How are Mycoplasma spp. infections controlled/prevented in pigs?
-biosecurity
-vaccinate (M. hyopneumoniae)
-establish Mycoplasma free farrowing operations using biosecurity and eliminating carriers
Which Mycoplasma spp. in pigs has a vaccine available?
Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
Mycoplasma spp. that infect cattle
M. mycoides subsp. mycoides = contagious bovine pleuropneumonia
M. bovis
M. californicum
M. canadense
M. bovigenitalium
Which Mycoplasma spp. causes Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia
M. mycoides subspecies mycoides
= classic "FAD"
What type of transmission of Mycoplasma spp. is found in cattle?
horizontal transmission
What are the disease/clinical signs of Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle?
genital infections
mastitis
joint infections
lower respiratory tract infections in calves
How do you diagnose Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle?
PCR
culture
How do you treat Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle?
Tilmycosin
Tylosin
Oxytetracycline
Macrolides
Florfenicol
no effective treatment for mastitis
What type of control/prevention measures are used for Mycoplasma spp. infections in cattle?
don't feed mastitic milk
biosecurity
quarantine and test replacements
Mycoplasma spp. that cause infections in sheep and goats
M. capricolum
M. ovipneumoniae
M. conjunctivae
What type of transmission occurs with Mycoplasma spp. infections in sheep and goats?
horizontal transmission
What type of disease/clinical signs does infection with Mycoplasma spp. in sheep and goats cause?
lower respiratory tract infections
joint swelling
keratoconjunctivitis
How do you diagnose Mycoplasma spp. infections in sheep and goats?
culture
How do you treat Mycoplasma spp. infections in sheep and goats?
same antimicrobials as in cattle
Tilmycosin
Tylosin
Oxytetracycline
Macrolides
Florfenicol
What control/prevention measures are taken for Mycoplasma spp. infections in sheep and goats?
biosecurity
cull affected animals to eliminate carriers
What species of Mycoplasma cause infection in dogs?
M. cyanos
M. canis
How is disease transmitted with Mycoplasma spp. in dogs?
horizontal transmission
What type of disease/clinical signs are caused by Mycoplasma spp. infections in dogs?
urogenital infections
pneumonia
How do you diagnose Mycoplasma spp. infections in dogs?
culture
How do you treat Mycoplasma spp. infections in dogs?
Doxycycline
Fluoroquinolones
How do you control/prevent Mycoplasma spp. infections in dogs?
biosecurity protocols
What Mycoplasma spp. causes infection in felines?
M. felis
How is M. felis transmitted in felines?
horizontal transmission
What type of disease/clinical signs does M. felis infection cause in cats?
conjunctivitis
Pneumonia
How do you diagnose M. felis infections in cats?
culture
How do you treat M. felis infections in cats?
Doxycycline
Fluoroquinolones
What control/prevention measures are taken in case of Mycoplasma felis infections in cats?
biosecurity
Which Mycoplasma species are hemotrophic species and were formerly classified as Eperythrozoon spp.?
Pigs - M. suis
Cattle - M. wenyonii
Sheep and Goats - M. ovis
How are the hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. transmitted?
blood borne diseases
vector transmission
What type of disease/clinical signs do the hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. cause?
anemia, palor, icterus, splenomegaly, hydropericardium, weakness, paralysis, repro problems, increased incidence of secondary infections, necrosis of extremities in colder climates
How do you diagnose the hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp.?
blood smear (Romanovsky stain)
serology
PCR
How do you treat the infections with hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp.?
Tetracyclines
How are hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. infections controlled/prevented?
elimination of carriers
vector control
Which hemotrophic spp. of Mycoplasma cause disease in dogs and cats?
M. haemocanis (dogs)
M. haemofelis (cats)
formerly known as Hemobartonella
How are hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. transmitted in dogs and cats?
blood borne
vector transmission
What type of disease/clinical signs do infections with hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. cause in dogs and cats?
anemia
palor
icterus
splenomegaly
fever progressing to subnormal temp.
How do you diagnose infections with hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. in dogs and cats?
blood smear (Romanovsky stain)
PCR
How do you treat infections with hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. in dogs and cats?
Doxycycline
Fluoroquinolones
Macrolides
How do you control/prevent infections with hemotrophic Mycoplasma spp. in dogs and cats?
vector control
screen blood donors
Which species of Ureaplasma cause infections in Cattle, dogs, and cats?
U. diversum - cattle
U. canigenitalium - dogs
U. cati, U. felinum - cats
How are Ureaplasma spp. transmitted?
horizontal transmission
What types of disease/clinical signs do Ureaplasma spp. cause?
urogenital tract infections
abortions/stillbirths (cattle)
respiratory tract infections (cattle, cats)
How do you diagnose Ureaplasma spp. infections?
PCR
culture
How do you treat infections with Ureaplasma spp.?
--intrauterine infusions with tetracyclines in cattle
--systemic tetracyclines (Doxy in dogs and cats)
What control/prevention measures should be taken with Ureaplasma spp. infections?
--biosecurity
--test and segregate (cull in the case of cattle)
--AI as opposed to natural cover for cattle
General properties of Anaplasmataceae family
nonmotile, pleomorphic coccobacilli, gram negative and Romanovsky stains, obligate intracellular parasite, chemoheterotroph (needs some enzymes), some facultative others obligate anerobes (genus dependent)
How do Anaplasmataceae replicate?
binary fission
see in morulae (replicative) and dense core (infectious forms) with in cells
infected cells lyse to release infectious forms
Anaplasmataceae are obligate _______________ parasites?
obligate intracellular parasites
The Anaplasmataceae family are chemoheterotrophs. That means that they need....
they need some enzymes.
What are the atmospheric requirements of Anaplasmataceae Family?
some are facultative and others are obligate anerobes (genus dependent)
What type of stains can be used for Anaplasmataceae?
Gram stain (gram negative)
Romanovsky stains (Giemsa, Gimenez, Wright's, Diff-Quick)
What Genus are contained in the Anaplasmataceae Family
Neorickettsia
Anaplasma
Ehrlichia (likely soon to be Anaplasma)
What are the two Neorickettsia spp. that cause disease in dogs?
N. helminthoeca
N. elokominica
What is the geographic distribution of Neorickettsia spp. that cause disease in dogs?
Pacific North west
How are Neorickettsia spp. transmitted in dogs?
transmission is via ingestion of salmonid fluke metacercariae
What type of disease/clinical signs do Neorickettsia spp. cause in dogs?
"Elokomin Fluke Fever"
gastrointestinal disease
lymphadenopathy
leukopenia progressing to leukocytosis
How are Neorickettsia spp. infections diagnosed in dogs?
serology
cytology (LN aspirate or buffy coat - monocytes)
How are infections with Neorickettsia spp. treated in dogs?
Doxycycline
Praziquantel
How are Neorickettsia spp. infections controlled/prevented in dogs?
avoid feeding raw fish to canids
What Neorickettsia spp. causes disease in horses and what was it formerly named?
N. risticii (formerly Ehrlichia risticii)
How is N. risticii transmitted to horses?
seasonal (May-October)
transmission through snail/fluke cercaria, caddis fly/fluke metacercaria
What disease/clinical signs does N. risticii cause in horses?
"Potomac Horse Fever"
gastrointestinal +/- diarrhea
ulcerative gastroenteritis
abortion
laminitis
leucopenia
anemia
How do you diagnose N. risticii infections in horses?
serology
histopathology (colonoscopic biopsy)
How do you treat N. risticii infections in horses?
oxytetracycline
banamine
How do you control/prevent N. risticii infections in horses?
vaccinate
vector control
What Anaplasma sp. causes disease in cattle?
A. marginale
What is the geographic distribution of Anaplasma marginale that causes disease in cattle?
Southeast US
Gulf Coast
How is A. marginale transmitted in cattle
tick orne
horse flies
multi-use needles
What disease/clinical signs does Anaplasma marginale cause?
"Anaplasmosis" -young susceptible to infection but refractory to disease
disease develops in older, niave individuals
muscle weakness
anemia
icterus
abortion
How do you diagnose A. marginale infections in cattle?
serology
cytology (RBCs)
How do you treat A. marginale infections in cattle?
tetracyclines
imidocarb
transfusions
****carriers may develop
How do you control/prevent infection with A. marginale in cattle?
--continuous feeding of tetracyclines
--premunition (young animals)
--premunition combined with tetracycline (older animals)
vaccination
vector control
What Anaplasma sp. causes disease in horses and what was it formerly named?
A. phagocytophilum
--formerly Ehrlichia equi
How is A. phagocytophilum transmitted in horses?
seasonal (late fall, winter, spring)
--- tick borne
What disease/clinical signs does infection with A. phagocytophilum cause?
---Equine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis---
jaundice, anemia, thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, limb edema, arteritis/phlebitis, neuritis, ataxia
How do you diagnose horses infected with A. phagocytophilum?
serology
cytology (PMNs, Eos)
PCR on buffy coat
How do you treat horses infected with A. phagocytophilum?
tetracyclines
How do you control/prevent A. phagocytophilum infections in horses?
vector control
What possible zoonotic disease is caused by A. phagocytophilum?
Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis (possibly*****)
What Anaplasma sp. causes disease in dogs? What is the former name?
Anaplasma platys
(formerly Ehrlichia platys)
How is Anaplasma platys transmitted in dogs?
tickborne
What disease/clinical signs does infection with A. platys cause?
"Canine Cyclic Infectious Thrombocytopenia"
--epistaxis, mucosal hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, anemia, lymphadenopathy
How do you diagnose dogs infected with A. platys?
cytology on blood smears (thrombocytes)
How do you treat dogs infected with A. platys?
doxycycline
How do you control/prevent infection with A. platys in dogs?
vector control
Which Ehrlichia spp. cause disease in dogs?
Ehrlichia canis
Ehrlichia ewingii
How are Ehrlichia canis and Ehrlichia ewingii transmitted?
tickborne transmission
What disease/clinical signs does infection with E. canis cause in dogs?
"Canine Ehrlichiosis" or "Tropical Pancytopenia"
--- epistaxis, mucosal hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, CNS signs
How do you diagnose infection with Ehrlichia canis in dogs?
serology
cytology on buffy coat or LN aspirate (monocytes, macrophages)
PCR
3-D snap test
How do you treat dogs infected with E. canis?
coxycycline
How do you control/prevent E. canis infections in dogs?
low dose doxycycline to prevent re-infection
vector control
Is Ehrlichia canis zoonotic?
Possibly Yes!! So still be careful
What disease/clinical signs does infection with E. ewingii cause in dogs?
"canine Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis"
----thrombocytopenia, polyarthritis, ataxia, paresis
How do you diagnose E. ewingii infections in dogs?
cytology on buffy coat (PMNs)
How do you treat E. ewingii infections in dogs?
doxycycline
How do you control/prevent infections with E. ewingii in dogs?
vector control
Is E. ewingii zoonotic?
yes possibly
What Ehrlichia sp. can cause infection in cats (also in dogs)?
E. canis - possible but RARE
Treatment/control/prevention is the same as dogs
What disease does E. canis cause in cats?
pancytopenia
polyarthritis
What Ehrlichia sp. causes disease in cattle, sheep, and goats? What was its former name?
E. ruminatum
(formerly Cowdria ruminatum)
Where is the geographic distribution of E. ruminatum?
Caribbean and Africa
How is E. ruminatum transmitted to cattle, sheep, and goats?
tickborne (Amblyoma sp.)
What Disease/clinical signs does E. ruminatum cause in cattle, sheep, and goats?
"Heartwater Disease" - young susceptible to infection but resistant to disease
--- PNS signs - hyperesthesia, twitching, CNS signs, hydropericardium, pulmonary edema, edema of the LNs and brain, ascites
How do you diagnose infection with E. ruminatum in cattle, sheep, and goats?
serology (false positives, cross reacts with A. phagocytophilum, E. canis)
cytology (macrophages
How do you treat E. ruminatum infections
tetracyclines
How do you control/prevent infections with E. ruminatum in cattle, sheep, and goats?
utilize resistant cattle breeds
premunition (young animals)
premunition combined with tetracyclines (older animals)
vector control
General info on Family Chlamyciales
obligate intracellular parasite, chemoheterotroph, anerobe, elementary body = non replicating, non-infectious form
What are the atmospheric requirements for the Chlamydiales family?
anerobe
Which type of stains are used for the Chlamydiales Family?
Romanovsky stains work best (Giemsa, Gimenez, Macchiavello's)
What is the only exception to not having veterinary importance in the Genus Chlamydia?
the asymptomatic infection in swine and hamsters with C. trachomatis - (human STD)
Which Chlamydiophila spp. cause diseases that are important in veterinary medicine?
Birds - C. psittaci
Sheep - C. abortus
Sheep and Cattle - C. pecorum
Cats - C. felis
Which Chlamydiophila sp. causes disease in birds?
C. psittaci
Which Chlamydiophila sp. causes disease in sheep?
C. abortus
Which Chlamydiophila sp. causes disease in sheep and cattle?
C. pecorum
Which Chlamydiophila sp. causes disease in cats?
C. felis
How is C. psittaci transmitted in birds?
horizontal transmission
What disease/clinical signs does C. psittaci cause in birds?
Chlamydiophilosis, Chlamydiosis, Psittacosis, Ornithosis
-- upper respiratory tract= sinusitis, conjunctivitis
--lower respiratory tract = airsacculitis, fibrinous perhepatitis/pericarditis hepatosplenomegaly, polyserositis
diarrhea
chronic forms see loss of condition and periodic reoccurrence of clinical signs
How do you diagnose infection with C. psittaci in birds?
serology
Kodak SureCell or Clearview Chlamydia
stained impression smears
PCR
culture
How do you treat C. psittaci infections in birds?
doxycycline (petbirds
others - chlortetracycline for 45d
How do you control/prevent infection with C. psittaci in birds?
quarantine new birds
eliminate carriers
Chlortetracycline in the feed/coated seeds
C. psittaci is a reportable disease in most states because....
because of the high potential for ZOONOSIS
---causes flu-like symptoms
How is C. abortus transmitted in sheep?
horizontal transmission from aborted fetuses/placentas
What disease/clinical signs are caused by C. abortus in sheep?
Enzootic Abortion in Ewes (EAE)
---abortions, stillbirths, weak lambs, placentitis, aborted fetuses are not autolyzed, potential for latent infections
How do you diagnose C. abortus infections in sheep?
serology
cytology
histopathology
How do you treat C. abortus infections in sheep?
tetracyclines IM and in feed
How do you control/prevent C. abortus infections in sheep?
inactivated vaccine
tetracycline in feed 2 weeks prior to lambing then throughout lambing season
ZOONOTIC - pregnant women should not handle infected sheep
How is C. pecorum transmitted in sheep and cattle?
horizontal transmission
What disease/clinical signs are caused by C. pecorum infections in sheep? (also causes disease in cattle)
Ovine Polyarthritis and Conjunctivitis
--in sheep infection is typically mild, epizootics brought on by severe weather, conjunctivitis with follicular hyperplasia, loss of body condition, polyarthritis
What disease/clinical signs are caused by C. pecorum infections in cattle? (also causes disease in sheep)
Sporadic Bovine Encephalomyelitis
---in cattle typically affects young, hypersalivation, peritonitis, anorexia, pneumonia, dyspnea, encephalitis, ataxia
How do you diagnose C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle?
cytology/histopathology
Kodak SureCell
Clearview Chlamydia
FA
culture
How do you treat C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle?
tetracyclines
How do you control/prevent C. pecorum infections in sheep and cattle?
Feed tetracyclines if severe weather imminent
How is C. felis transmitted in cats?
horizontal transmission
What disease/clinical signs are caused by C. felis infections in cats?
Feline Conjunctivitis and Rhinitis
--upper respiratory signs, conjunctivitis with follicular hyperplasia, weight loss seen with chronic cases
How do you diagnose C. felis infections in cats?
cytology
Kodak SureCell
Clearview Chlamydia
culture
How do you treat C. felis infections in cats?
tetracycline opthalmic ointment
doxycycline
How do you control/prevent C. felis infections in cats?
modified live and killed vaccines
POSSIBLY ZOONOTIC!!!
Rickettsiaceae Family - general info
Obligate intracellular parasite
coccobacillus
need Romanovsky stains to visualize (Giemsa, Gimenez)
What Rickettsia sp. causes disease in dogs?
R. rickettsii
What is the geographical distribution of R. rickettsii that infects dogs?
common in Mid Atlantic States, but first diagnosed in Rocky Mountains
How is R. rickettsii transmitted to dogs?
tick borne transmission --- but reservoir is present (wild rodents, rabbits, hares)
What disease/clinical signs are caused by R. rickettsii infection in dogs?
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
----abdominal pain, swelling of extremities, necrotizing vasculitis, mucosal hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, anemia, leukopenia progressing to leukocytosis, polyarthritis, lymphadenopathy, DIC
How do you diagnose R. rickettsii infections in dogs?
serology, cytology- (lymph nodes), histopathology - (skin biopsies - vasculitis), PCR (blood), culture
How do you treat R. rickettsii infections in dogs?
Doxycycline
How do you control/prevent infections with R. rickettsii in dogs?
vector control
----obviously zoonotic if humans bitten by tick stadia from infected dogs or inadverent sticks with needles used on infected dogs
Coxiella - (unclassified - formerly Family - Rickettsiaceae): general info
pleomorphic but often rod shaped
obligate intracellular parasite
posseses LPS
forms endospores that are environmentally resistant
can undergo phase variation when cultured
similar to Francisella and Legionella (likely to be reclassified there)
stains best with modified Ziehl-Neelson or Giemsa stains
What are the best stains for Coxiella organisms?
modified Ziehl-Neelson or Giemsa stains
Coxiella burnetti can cause disease in what animal species?
cattle
sheep
goats
wild herbivores
canids
felids
How is Coxiella burnetti transmitted?
horizontal transmission via contact with infected tissues, inhalation of aerosols and dust from dried tissues, biting insects
What disease/clinical signs are caused by infection with Coxiella burnetti?
Q fever, often subclinical but can produce lymphadenopathy, mastitis, placentitis, endometritis, infertility, abortion
How do you diagnose Coxiella burnetti infections?
serology
cytology (monocytes, macrophages)
histopathology (Kupfer cells)
How do you treat Coxiella burnetti infections?
tetracyclines
***persistent infection common despite treatment
How do you control/prevent Coxiella burnetti infections?
vaccine (Investigative New Drug - IND - approval in U.S.)
---ZOONOTIC - chronic