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34 Cards in this Set

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What do Chlamydia trachomatis serovars A, B, Ba, and C cause
What do Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K cause
Sexually transmitted diseases; urethritis, cervicitis; inclusion conjunctivitis, infant interstitial pneumonia
What are the two human biovars of Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia trachomatis serovars A-K
Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)
What does Chlyamydia trachomatis biovar Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) cause
Sexually transmitted diseases.
Three serovars (LGV 1,2,3)
Causes lymphogranuloma venereum, primary urethritis, cervicitis
What does Chlamydia pneumoniae (TWAR=Taiwan acute respiratory infection) cause
Pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis. Human transmission
What does Chlamydia psittaci cause
Atypical pneumonia, endocarditis, spontaneous abortion in sheep
Zoonotic transmission to man
What are the general characteristics of Chlamydia
obligate intracellular parasites
Small genome, carry plasmids
Cell envelope similar to gram negative bacteria but no peptidoglycan. Group specific LPS; type-specific membrane antigens
Susceptible to tetracycline, erythromycin
How might the life cycle of Chlamydia be described
Dimorphic life cycle- elementary body (EB) and reticulate body (RB)
Describe Chlamydia's elementary body
Small, dense
Extracellular, infectious
No metabolic activity or osmotic fragility
Cross-linked outer membrane proteins
Describe Chlamydia's reticulate body
Large, homogeneous
Intracellular, replicative
Has metabolic activity and osmotic fragility
Does not have cross-linked outer membrane proteins
What are the three most common Chlamydia species
Chlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia pneumoniae
Chlamydia psittaci
Describe the life cycle of Chlamydia
Attachment to glycoprotein or glycolipid receptors on columnar epithelial cells of mucous membranes. Displays tissue tropism
Entry/Penetration- induced endocytosis; multiple mechanisms?
Multiplication within inclusion vacuole
Release of infectious EBs by lysis of host cell
How does Chlamydia multiply within an inclusion vacuole
Converts from EB to RB
Utilizes host ATP for energy
Blocks fusion of vacuole with lysosome
Divides, enlarges, inhibits apoptosis
Matures to EB
What are Chlamydia's direct cytopathic effects on host cells
Cells vacuolate and degenerate 24-72 hrs after infection
Deciliation of epithelia; disruption of processing and packaging functions of secretory epithelial cells
What is the immune pathogenesis of Chlamydia
Heat shock proteins may lead to inflammation
Acute and chronic inflammation at site of infection
Scarring of conjunctivae, Fallopian tube scarring
What causes trachoma
Chlamydia trachomatis serovars A, B, Ba, and C
What is trachoma
Bacteria inoculated into the eye by contaminated hand grows in the epithelial cells of the conjunctiva. Local immune reaction causes follicular conjunctivitis that can heal or become chronic. Chronic leads to growth of pannus across the cornea
What is the epidemiology of trachoma
Leading cause of preventable blindness affecting 500 million people. Hyperendemic in Africa and Asia
What causes Adult inclusion conjunctivitis
Chlamydia trachomatis Serovars D-K
What is Adult inclusion conjunctivitis
Acute follicular conjunctivitis with edema, erythema and mucopurulent discharge. Resembles trachoma but scarring of eyelids and pannus formation do not usually occur (no blindness). Associated with genital infections
What is the most common cause of STDs in the US
Sexually transmitted diseases cause by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K
Describe non-gonococcal urethritis and acute epididymitis in males
Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K. Urethral irritation; urethral discharge is clear to mucopurulent
Persistent urethral leukocytosis.
Partner transmission 70%
N. Gonorrhoea+Chlamydia=20%
What causes acute urethral syndrome, mucopurulent cervicitis, salpingitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in females
Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K. Most women will be asymptomatic. Symptoms may be subtle
Infection may lead to sterility, ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages, low birth weight babies
Describe neonatal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis serovars D-K
Ocular infections- acute mucopurulent eye discharge. Picks up infection from mother. Most common form of neonatal conjunctivitis in the US
Infant interstitial pneumonia- gradual onset, no fever
What do Chlamydia trachomatis serovars L1, L2, L2a, and L3 cause
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Describe Lymphogranuloma venereum
LGV strains show tropism for lymphoid cells.
Primary lesion is small, near genitalia. Heals spontaneously
Later, regional lymphadenopathy occurs. Fever, chills, headaches, arthralgia, myalgia
Late phase includes sequelae due to changes in lymph drainage, like perirectal abscesses and fistulas
What is Psittacosis, which is caused by Chlamydia psittaci
Primary atypical pneumonia
What is the main disease caused by Chlamydia pneumoniae
Walking pneumonia, similar to the disease caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
How are Chlamydia infections diagnosed
Screening is important
Growth in cell culture, but it's slow
Scrapings from infected eye or genital tract
How will Chlamydia trachomatis be distinguished from C. pneumoniae and C. psittaci in a stain
C. trachomatis inclusions contain glycogen and stain reddish brown with iodine. C. pneumoniae and C. psittaci do not contain glycogen
How is trachoma treated
Antibiotics early, surgery to repair scarring
No acquired immunity to reinfection
How are Chlamydia STDs treated
Azithromycin (1), ofloxacin, tetracycline, doxycycline
Give doxycycline 21 days for LGV
How is Chlamydia-induced infant conjunctivitis treated
Oral erythromycin; not silver nitrate
How are Chlamydia-induced Psittacosis and pneumonia treated
Tetracycline and erythromycin