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39 Cards in this Set

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Gastroenteritis
incubation is 12hrs to days because it is an infection
Food poisoining
GI symp wiht in a few hours cause it is not an infection
Diarrhea
>300g of stool daily with increased liquidity and frequency
Secretory Diarrhea
water and ion loss, no damage
ie cholera
Malabsorptive diarrhea
damage to mucosal cells inmpairs water uptake
dysentery
multiple, bloody, mucoid stools
Characteristics of enterobacteriaceae
gram negative
non-spore forming
facultatively anaerobic
bacilli
produce acid from glu ferment
reduce nitrates
cytochrome oxidase negative
Are salmonella motile?
yes, peritrichous flagella
What is a good way to distinguish salmonella?
do not ferment lactose - MacCanky agar
What are the 3 types of salmonella that are highly adapted for humans?
s. typhi
s. parptyphi
s. sendai
What is the most frequent salmonellosis?
s. typhinurium
What types of infections does salmonella cause?
gastroenteritis - selflimiting
systemic typhoid fever
How do you get salmonella?
eating contaminated food or water
How does salmonella colonize?
invasion of peyers patches and enters through M cells which die leaving a gap and allows bac into the lamina propria and makes a vacuole
What do M cells do and what disease are they important in?
they sample the intestinal enviornment looking for Ag and are involved in salmonella and shigella
what is the model for salmonella?
Caco-2 cells in mice
What is the mechanism in which salmonella and shigella enter a cell?
Type III secretion apparatus
What did the Type III secretion apparatus evolve from?
flagella
SPI 1?
required for entry of salmonella into cells and translocates effectors across the plasma membrane
What does SPI stand for?
Salmonella Pahtogenicity Islands
What are the effectors of SPI 1?
induce ruffling
int't directly with cytoskele
insert into host memb
cross-link actin
nucleate actin polymerization
SPI 2?
required for intracellular survival of salmonella - blocks vacuole from fusing with the lysosome
Non-typhoidal samonellae...
#2 foodborne disease
meat, poultry, eggs, dairy
infectious dose is reduced with decrease in stomach acid
Typhoid fever
early - like gastroenteritis
enter M and prolif in lymph follicles
fever, endotoxemia (LPS), bacteremia(exotoxin), rose spots
fever can last 30 days
Live attenuated vaccine Ty21a for typhoid..
reduced side rxns
6 pills
booster @ 5yrs
cannot be given with antibiotics!!!!
Vi polysaccharide capsular vaccine (typhim) for typhoid...
good for 2 yrs
injection once
4 species that cause diseases in humans of shigella
s. dysenteriae
s. flexneri
s. boydii
s. sonnei
Charactersitics of the shigella family...
non-motile
unencapsulated
oral-fecal
contaminated food and water
What does shigella share and with what?
toxins with invasive strains of e.coli
Ipa?
invasion protein antigens

infectious part of shigella
How does shigella get in?
Type III
IpaB binds integrins so actin poly and depolymerizes and gets in a vacuole
Once inside a cell how does shigella differ from salmonella?
they dont like being in a vacuole
How does shigella move?
acin polymerization and depolymerization at one pole
What is the shigella toxin?
A:5B
A - RNA N glycosidase
B - recognizes terminal glactose residues on globotriaosylceramide (GB3)
What does shigella toxin part B recognize?
terminal galactose residues on globotriaosylceramide
What does the A subunit of the shigella toxin do?
RNA N-glycosidase
Stx...
S. dysenteriae
chromosomal
Stx 1
E. coli
phage or chromosomal
Stx 2
E. Coli
phage - worst