Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
plasmid that contains genes coding for the synthesis fo
Fertility factor- the F pilus and genes necessary for mobiliztion fo DNA throug the pilus during conjugation
Resistance factors-Conjugative plasmids that carry anitbiotic resistance gene
plasmids that carry genes involved in bacterial pahtoghenisis
Virulence factors
Viruses that infect bacteria
small, can carry genome to bacteria, causing mutations
bacteria infected by virus, host genome integration , stands latent with few bacteriophage genes expressed
DNA sequences that can move from one site ina DNA sequence to another. Can move among plasmids, bacteriophage, ect..Can cause mutations.
base substitutions
deletion & insertions
lethat mutation
suppressor mutation
types of mutations
change of one nucleotide
no shift change
transistion and transversion
missense, silent , nonsense
Base substitution
switching between a purine to a pyrimadine in base substituion mutation
switching between a purine and purine or pyrimadine to pyrimadine
Gram positive
1. Staph.
a. aureus
b. epidermidis
c. saprophyticus
2. Strep
a. pyogenes
b. agalactiae
c. mutans
d. pneumonia
3. Enterococci
a. fecalis
b. faecium
4. Bacillus
a. anthracis
b. cereus
5. Clostridium
a. botulinum
b. tetani
c. perfringens
d. difficile
6. Corynebacterium Diptheria
7. Listeria monocytogenes
8. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae
staph aureus
1. pneumonia, scalded skin syndrom (skin lesions, boils), toxic shock syndrom, endocarditis, osteomyolitis
2. mucopeptide- a. toxic, antiphagocytic b. coagulase (diagnonstic) c.protien A
3.Found in/on humans skin, nose and perinium
4.Identify by: white or golden conlonies blood agar, catalase +, coag +, ferment manitol anaerobically
staph epidermidis
1.Oportunistic with instramentation insertion, ie cath, prostetics, heart valve....
2. extracellular slime production enables adhesion to plastic and metal
3.Test for; white colonies on blood agar, catalase +, coag -, non-fermentor of manital
4.Normally on skin 100% pop.
staph saprophyticus
1. colinization of periurethral skin and mucosa, uti with intercourse
2. ?
3. skin and genitourinary mucosa
4.Identify; white colonies on BA, coag -, cat -, non-ferm
3. find
Strep pyogenes
1. URTI, Flesh eating, glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, toxic shock, celutitus
2.causes--exotoxins and exotoxins- erythrogenic toxin, streptolysins, streptokinase A&B, deoxyribonuclease, haluronidase, M&T antigen
3.Found- URT and skin
4. Identify- blood agar, anerobicly enhanced hemolytic activity, cat-, bacitracin susceptable
strep agalactiae
1.nenatal meningitis, septocemia, and bovine mastitis
2.patho-? cns envolvement
3.Found-vagina and gut
4.Identify-beta hemolytic on blood agar, hippurate hydrolosis +, aesculin hydrolosis -, +CAMP test
strep mutans
1. dental carries
strep pneumonia
1. meningitis, pneumonia, septocemia, and otitis
2.Patho-no known exotoxins, capsule allows evation of phagocytosis
3.Found- Resp. Tract
4.Identify- alpha hemolytic on blood agar w/autolysis, cat-, suseptable to bile, quellung rxn- appear to swell in presence of specific antiserum,,,optokin disc sensitive
bacillus anthracis
1. anthrax, skin and lung
2.Patho- polyglutamic acid capsule is antiphagocytic, exotoxin encoded on temp. dependent plasmid is produced-
adema factor, lethal factor and protective antigen
4.Identify- mcfadyen rxn.(polychrome methelene blue, capsule stain), medusa head colonies on agar, CO2 induces capsule formation.
Bacillus cereus
1. food poisoning, cooked rice
2.Patho- heat stable toxin 1-5hrs. vomit, heat labile 10-15 hrs diareaha
3. Found- rice, vegies
4. Ident- hemolytic on horse and sheep blood agar, can not use manitol
clostridium diff.
1.gut infections in association with antibiotic sickness
2.Patho- non-spore forming, exotoxins A&B
3.Found- normal flora for gut of some people
4. Identify- immunoassay for toxins in stool
clostridium perfringens
1. Gas gangrene, wound infection, myonecrosis, septosemia from abortion
2. Patho- spore former that grows in dead tissue, enterotoxin produced during spore forming
3.Found- everywhere
4. ID-?
clostriduim tetni
1. tetnus
2.patho- toxin binds to gangliocide in synaptic membranes, stops inhibitory neurons,,,constant firing
3.Found- soil, rust
4. ID-?
clostridium botulinum
1. strict anerob, spore former that causes food-borne botulism, infantile botulism, and wound botulism
2. Patho- blocks myoneural juction, can cause paralysis of diaphram and death. Most lethal natural toxin known.
3. Found- soil saphrophytes adn some in the gut.
4. ID-Use of ELISA for botulism, examine stool for toxin.
Corynebacterium diphtheriae
1. Diptheria- gross swelling of pharyngeal area,,,breaks down mucus
2. Patho- capsular antigen, enzymes; neuraminidase and N-aceyl-neuraminidase, toxic glycolipid-6-6 diesterase,, break down of mucus
3. Found- oral cavity
4. ID- Elk plate test
Listeria Monocytogenes
1. zoonotic associated cellulitis, can cross the placenta
2.Patho- Motile, macrophage invader, has O and H antigen
3.Found- everywhere, zoonotic, water and soil
4. ID-grows well at 4 degrees C...non-pasturized foods
Gram Negatives
All have endotoxins, smaller cell wall, some with mucus capsules
a. meningitidis
b. gonococcus
2. Haemophilus
a. influenzae
b. aegyptius
c. ducreyi
3. Bordetella
a. Pertussis
b. bronchiseptica
4. Moraxella
a. caterallis
Neisseria Meningitidis
1. Meningitis, pneumonia, arthritis, urethritis, Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome- collapse of adrenals
2. Path-capsular polysaccharide, lipopolyoligosaccharide(LOS), lipid A plus core without O antigen
IgA protease, Immunoglobulin degrading enzymes, adhesion pili
3.Found- asymtomatic carriers in nasopharynx
4.ID- agglutination, PCR, does not grow at 22 degrees C, does not ferment sucrose or lactose
Neisseria gonorrhoeae
1.Gonorrhea, conjuctavitis, sometimes fingers.
2.Patho- capsular like material antiphagocytic, pili, IgA protease, LOS-endotoxins
3. Found- humans are only natural host
4. ID- intracellular diplococci, ferments only glucose
Haemophilus influenzae
1. meningitis, osteomyelitis, epiglottitis, otitis, chronic bronchitis,,,type B (HIB) is most prevelent
2. Patho- antiphagocytic capsule, lipopolysaccaride, fimbrea adhesion
3. Found-URT
4. ID- culture CSF, agglutenation, gram stain pleomorphic rods
Haemophilus aegyptius
pink eye,,,requires both x and v factors
Haemophilus ducreyi
1. Chancroid- genital cancore sores. Epidemiologic outbreaks,,through sexual transmission,,,
Bordetella Pertussis
1. Whooping cough,
2. Patho- Endotoxin, perussin toxin(AB exotoxin), toxins are dermonecrotic, adenyl cyclase toxin, and filamentous hemaaglutination
3. Found- human carriers, airborne
4. ID- Isolate on Brodet-Gengou media
X factor
needed for haemophilus growth,,,,,, Hematin
V factor
needed for haemophilus growth,,,, NADP
1.penicillian, cephelosporins, carbapens, monobactams
2.stops pentaglycyl bridge formation,,,cell wall disruption
3. Has to be in growing cells!! do not use with tetracylene or sulfa-- (bacteriostatic drugs)
2.inhibits transgylcosolation in cell wall formation on gram positive
1.streptomyosin, gentalmicin
2.binds 30s subunits
3.broad bacteriocide
1. tetracycline, doxycycline
2. binds 30s subunits
3. bacteriostatic
1. erythromycin, lincomycin, clindamycin
2.binds the 50s subunits of microbial ribosomes
3. bacteriostatic
1. Synercid
2. binds the 50s subunit
3. bacteriostatic
1.Ciprofloxin, norfloxacin
2.binds DNA gyrase
3.can enter phagocytes and kill bacteria,,, broad bacteriacide
2. binds beta subunit of RNA polymerase of bact.
3. broad antibacterial,,,works agianst mycobacteria
1.bactrim, septra, trimethopims
2. inhibits ez responsible for tetrahydrofolate porduction
3. broad antibacterial, good for some fungi and protozoa
1. flagyl
2.Interferes with DNA replication
3. anaerobic bacteriocide
2. binds 50s subunit
3. broad bacteriostatic
1.both gram -/+
2. Is a protien
3. Heat labile
4. toxiods that are highly antigenic
5. Mostly extracellular
6. highly toxic, no fever
1. Gram - cell walls
2. LPS
3. Heat stable
4. low antigenicity
5. cell bound
6. weakly toxic, induce fever
1. spectinomyocin
2. binds 30s subunit for gonorrhea
3. bacteriostatic