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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is an antiseptic?
antimicrobial angent applied to the SKIN
What is a disinfectant?
antimicrobial agent applied to an INANIMATE OBJECT
What is Triclosan?
di-phenolic compound that inhibits FA synth in bacteria
How was penicilling discovered?
plates stored too long didnt grow near funky white stuff -> PENICILLIN
What is the main issue with antibiotics?
lack of specificity and resistance
Bacteriostatic
not lethal in itself
relys on host machinary to kill

ie tetracycline
Bacteriocidal
directly kill the pathogen

ie penicillin
Toxic side effects of tetracycline?
tooth discoloration
toxic side effect of streptoycin?
auditory damage
toxic side effect of cholamphenicol?
anemia
What type of hypersensitivity can you get from anti-biotics?
Type I IgE
What bacteria can grow when you suppress normal flora?
Clostridium difficle causing diarrhea
Minimum Inhibitory Concentration
lowest conc of drug that inhibits growth of a microbe
Minimum lethatl concentration/ Minimum bactericidal concentration
lowest conc of drug that kills a definded proportion of microbial pop at a given time
When are cell wall inhibitors most effective?
in growing cells
The crosslinking of peptidoglycans occurs at what 2 residues?
Lysine
meso-diaminopimelic acid
What are the 3 steps of peptidoglycan biosynthesis?
1. synth of precurssors in cytoplasm
2. transport of disaccharide
3. assembly & cross-linking
What 2 enzymes are required for cross-linking?
carboxypeptidase
transpeptidase
What are the b-lactam antibiotics?
penicilllin
cephalosporin
carbapenem
monobactam
Where do b-lactam antibiotics act?
D-ala D-ala terminal prevents crosslinking
What is the basic structure of penicillin?
cystine-valine condensation
What are the sites of enzymatic cleavage of penicillin?
B-lactimase: CN bond
amidase substrate for synthetic derivatives
R-groups added to penicillin can effect?
1. acid liability
2. b-lactimase sensitivity
3. activity toward grm +/-
What is the purpose of clavulanic acid?
inactivates b-lactimase by binding
Carboxypeptidase does what?
cleaves the terminal D-ala on pentapeptide
Transpeptidase does what?
forms peptide bridge
What 2 enzymes are penicillin binding protiens?
transpeptidase
carboxypeptidase
What are 3 mechanisms for penicillin resistance?
1. decreased perm to drug - mut of porins
2. mut of PBP
3. new DNA