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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
autotrophs need what three things to grow
CO2, H20, salt
four growth bacterial growth factors
1. B-complex vitamins (coenzymes)
2. Amino acids
3. pyrimidins and purines (DNA and RNA)
4. Inorganic ions (all bacteria need)
C must be in what form
organic form
bacteria where O2 is not toxic but they dont use it
aerotolerant anaerobes
bacteria which grow under aerobic and anaerobic conditions
faculatative anaerobes
grow best at low o2 tensions, but high O2 is inhibitory
iron chelator in pathogen
lactoferrin, transferrin, and hemoglobin are all exmaples of
iron binding proteisn in host
linear relationship between cell # and amount of light scattered
optical densitiy
direct count includes
nonviable and viable bacteria - infrequently used - large concentrations needed
process of a viable (plate) count
make dilutions of smaple on nutrient medium - count colonies - back calculate # of viable cells in undiluted sample
time needed for population to double
generation time
metabolic acvity is present but there are no increases in numbers of bacteria
lag time
used to measure generation time

(stage in growth)
log or exponential phase
equilibrium between growth and death
stationary phase
the stationary phase is dependent on
waste, exhaustion of nutrients, change in pH, decrease in O2 tenstion
why might bacteria in stationary phase be harder to treat -
they are may be more resistant to certain antibiotics
like eukaryotic tubulin. essential for formation fo cell wall during division
the direct synthesis of ATP during fermentation is called
substrate level phosphorylation

ATP is made directly via the transfer of a high-energy phosphate bond to ADP.
why might O2 be toxic in obligate anaerobles
H2O2 might accumulate as anaerobes lack catalase

or they lack superoxide dismutase which breaks down superoxide

essential enzymes may be inhibited or inactivated by O2 and reactive O2 species
a hemoprotein enzyme present isn most aerobes which decomposis H2O2
what type of metabolism - Streptococcus
anaerobic but aerotoleratn

no functional respiratory system capable of oxidative phosphorylation - indifferent o O2 - no heme enzymes
faculatative anaerobes exhibit better growth under what condition
exhibit better growth aerobivally than anaerobically
E. coli, salmonella, and staphylcoccus are all
faculatative anaerobes
e.g of microaerophilic organism
H acceptor in fermentation
pyruvic acid turns to lactic acid
four ways that respiratio and fermentation are the same
1. generate ATP (but by processes)
2. Oxidation of substrates
3. cyclins of NADH (reduced) and NAD (oxidized)
4. glucose is oxidized to form pyruvate generatin NADH and small amount of ATP
The reduced organic compounds resulting from fermentation can be used to
identify pathogenic bacteria
what is the chemiosmotic hypothesis
the purpose of fermentation is to
regenerate NAD which is formed from earlier steps in glycplysis - it occurs in the absense of O1
in a mixed acid fermentation how might you tell the differene between shigella and salmonella
w/ salmonella you get CO2

with shigella you get formic acid
a fermenting pattern where one amino acid is the e-donor and another is electron acceptor
strickland reaction

seen in clostridia
organisms that fixes CO to get energy and C
all fermentation products are derivitives of
pyruvic acid
the fermentation product which is responsible for the foul smell in Clostidum's "gasgrene"
Butyric Acid
electrons generated by oxidation are first transferred to
NAD - which is limited supply so must unload electrons - two routes - respiration or fermentation
during both the fermentation and respiration of glucose glucose is oxidized to form
pyruvate, generating NADH and small amount of ATP

the subsequent step of regenerating NAD+ is different for the two processes. In fermentation e- gets donated to pyruvate, in respiration its donated to respiratory chain
in contrast to fermentation, in aerobic respiration a large amount of utilized carbohydrate appears as
where are the degradative enzymes in gram - vs. gram +
gram - periplasmic space

gram + extracellularly
organic (carbon) compounds that are not metabolized to supply energy but used to make metabolites that the bacterium cannot make from a simple carbon source
growth factors
in which two kinds of kind of bacteria is metabolism strictly fermentive?
obligate and aerotleratn anaerobes
what bacteria is a causitive agent of food poisoning and can grow at the temp of a refrigerator
optimum pH range
an increase in tubity means that light is more or less scattered in an optical density test
reduciton of light transmitted, more scattered, more turbiity

turbitity measure w/ spectrophotometer
about how many bacteria are present if solution is faintly turbid
1x10^6 per ml

highly turpid 1x10^8
two bacteria that exhibit lactic fermentation
strep and lactobaccili