Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/14

Click to flip

14 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. Explain how ATP and reducing power are generated
ATP: 2 ways to produce
1. substrate level phosphorlyation-where a phos. intermed is convereted to a high engergy phsophate bond which reacts with ADP to ATP
2. Chemiosmosis--when prtons are ejected out of the cell during respiration---created an NRG gradient whcih then drives protons back into cell via ATPase--this generates ATP from ADP
2. How is reducing power are generated?
reducing power is the major source of eletrons that feeds the ETC:
1. come from pmf and ATP-you kick out prtons--ATPase brings them back but if you don't need more ATP--you can reverse it and prdouce pmf
2.in other words: when reducing power is in short supply, ATP can undero hydrolysis to ADP, this will expel prtons from the cell and creat a pmf that will drive el in the oppsosite direction via ETC
List the nutreint entry mechanisms
1. active transport-brings nuts in
2. group translocation--phospho the nutrient alters its structure and maintains the gradient that drives it in
3. facilitated diffusion-using the substrate as soon as it enters the cell-leaves the gradient intact
(note 1 & 2 require nrg)
Fermentation
anaerobic respiration; yields two ATP; product is lactate; terminal E. aceptor is an organic metablolic intermediat-organic acis
Cellular Respiration
the aerobic breakdown of gluocose yields 36 ATP; NADH and FADH2 are eng carrying molecules of respiration;
Aerobic-prod of glcyoliss enter the krebs cycel and ETC
Anaerboic-only glycolysis takes place--small enrg yeild
Describe binary fission
form of asexual reproduction in a single-celled org by which one cell dvidies into two cells of the same size, used by most prokaryoties; aka mitosis
Explain phases of growth in bacteria:
1. lag-sensing environment; making materials to fcn in environment
2. exponenetial (log)-growth and death are exponential
3. stationary-amt of growth=amt of death
4. death
Desribe nutrition including O requirements
1. heterotropic-need preformed Hydrocarbsons like sugars to gorw
2. some require inorgaic salts and N (e-coli)
3. others-vits, amino acis, purines (complex media--Strep) called fastidious (neisseria, haemophilus)
4. iron-essentail-siderophores are secreated by bacteria and are iron-chealting compounds
Oxygen requirements?
1. aerobes-neisseria/pseudomona (O final electron acceptor
2. oligate anaerboes -clostridium-fermentation
3. facultative anaerboes-gorw aeroviaclaly in presence of O and anerobically in absense of O (e-coli)
4. aerotolerant (microaerophilic)-tolerate O but grow ferentatively (eg. most Strep)
List the steps in the synthesis of peptidoglycan (ppg)
1. UDP actives NAM and NAG
2. pentapeptide is added to UDP-NAM
3. UDP-NAM-PEP transers to bactoprenol phosphate
4. UDP-NAG transers to NAM-PEP to complete the ppg monomer
5. bactoprenol phosphe trasnports ppg monomers across cell membrane
6. autolysins break the glycosidc bons of the ppg and preptide cross linages
7. transglycosidase NZ insert and link inot the new ppg
8. transpeptidase NZ reforms and peptide cross links
List two common classes of antibotics and their targets:
B-lactams: penicllins, cephalsproins, carbepenems
Vancoymcin-binds to peptides of ppg monomers and block transgycosidase
List 3-5 of the targets for antibotics
Bacitracin-blocks dephsorialtion of bactoprenol phosphate
2. cycloserine--an anologue of D-ala, blocks addition of depeptide to UDP-NAM
3. Fosfomycin-inhibits phosphoenoyphruvate transerae and prevents formations of NAM
antibiotic blockage of ribosome cycle
30s inhibiros: tetracycline & aminoglcysides
50S inhibitors: macolises & chloramphonicol
other targets for antibiotitcs
DNA synthesis: fluoroquinoines
RNA synethsis: Rifampin
Folate antagonists: sulfoamides
Cytoplasmic membrane: poymxins (see next to last slide)