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52 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the cause of death for bacterial meningitis?
lipid soluble endotoxins released at cell death
S/S for B. meningitis
1) Headache
2) cloudy CSF
3) stiff neck w/ head looking down
4) vomiting
What is the moratility rate for untreated meningitis?
close to 100 %
B. meningitis may kill a person w/ in 24 hrs after onset of symptoms. What is this related to?
shock and inflammation
Most bacterial infections are caused by one of the following:
Hemophilus, streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitids
Why are pathogenic strains of these bacteria so lethal?
They contain virulence factors that facilitates tranfer across the blood brain barrier and are antiphagocytic
what was thought to have caused the influenza pandemic?
Hemophilus influenzae- normal flora on the back of the throat
what do more than half of the Hemophilus influenzae cases present as?
what has decreased the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis?
vaccine developed in 1988
what is the second leading cause of bacterial pnuemonia deaths in children in developing countries?
Hemophilus influenzae
what is the most suceptible group for H. influenzae?
children: 6 months-2 yrs
What is the Tx for H. influenzae?
streptococcus pneumoniae is more likely to cause what?
how many hospititalizations occur per year for pneumonia?
How many cases per year of meningitis does S. pneumoniae cause?
how many cases of meningitis is S. pneumoniae responsible for in those people over 40?
over half
What are the susceptible groups for S. pneumoniae?
Immunosuppressed individuals
1- Infants
2- alcoholics
What is another name for Neisseria Meningitis?
meningococcal disease
what is the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in children and young adults?
meningococcal disease
where does the Niesseria normally present itself?
normal flora in the nose and throat of asymptomatic carriers
How is Neisseria transmitted?
person to person via resp. droplets
How does Neisseria get passed the IGA in the mucus membranes on the throat?
posses IGA protease that inactivates it
What are the susceptible groups for Neisseria?
1) Military recruits
2) freshman dorms
3) those exposed to cigarette smoke
4) stressful, crowded situations
What it the Tx for Neisseria?
What is the Etiology for Tetanus?
Clostridium Tetani
C. tetani is:
anaerobic and an endospore forming
How does the infection in Tetanus occur?
spores contaminate a deep anaerobic wound, bacteria does not spread from wound site
What is the neurotoxin that is responsible for tetanus?
tetanospasmin (exotoxin)
What is the action of tetanospasmin?
interferes with inhibtory nerve messages-> muscles constantly contract and causes rigid paralysis
How can you die from Tetanus?
spasm of the diaphram
Can tetanus be prevented?
Yes. tetanus toxoid prevents infection
how often do you need a booster for tetanus?
every 10 years
What is the treatment for tetanus?
1) preformed tetanus immune globins
2) incision and debridement of wound
What is the Etiology for Botulism?
Clostridium Botulinium
C. botulinium is:
anaerobic, endospore former
The infection of C. botulinium occurs when:
improperly canned foods are eaten, or ingested by babies
What is the effect of the toxin produced by C. botulinium?
Extemely potent neurotoxin that blocks release of acetylcholine and leads to flaccid paralysis
Is there an immunization for Botulism?
What is the Tx for botulism?
Admin of antitoxin antibodies, sophisticated life support (artificial respirator)
What is the Etiology for Leprosy?
Mycobacterium leprae
What are the two forms of Leprosy?
1)Tuberculoid (anesthetic)
2)Lepromatous (nodular)
What happens in Tuberculoid Leprosy?
Skin loses pigment and sensitivity
Neural involvement and gradual atrophy and bone re-absorption
What are the characteristics of Lepromatous Leprosy
1) Enlarged disfiguring granulomas called lepromas
2) intracellular masses of lepra bacilli cause foamy cytoplam
What is the transmission for leprosy?
breaks in skin, inhalation of contaminated nasal secretions
How communicable is Leprosy?
Least communicable of infectious diseases
Why is M. leprae hard to study?
It will not grow on an artificial medium
what is the optimal grow temperature for M. leprae?
30 degrees C (86 F)
grows best in cool places
(earlobes, hands, nose, feet)
what is the incubation period of leprosy?
2-10 years
what is the generation time for M. leprae?
1 every 12 days
Where would you find the M. Leprae if it infected the body?
peripheral nerve cells
The M. Leprae bacterium causes:
chronic neurological inflammation which leads to loss of feeling
In Leprosy, there is a delayed hypersenstivity which is accountable for:
formation of lesions and nodules