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71 Cards in this Set

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Lactic Acid - Homofermative pathway:
lactococcus lactis
cheese, kefir
Lactic Acid - Homofermative pathway:
streptococcus thermophilis
yogurt, LA production
Lactic Acid - Homofermative pathway: • L. Thamisus
LA production
Lactic Acid - Homofermative pathway:• L. Bulgaricus
yogurt
Lactic Acid - Homofermative pathway:• L. Plantarium
pickles, olives
Lactic Acid - Homofermative pathway:•• Listeria
AEROBE, rod shaped, LA production
Lactic Acid - Homofermative pathway:• • pediococcus
tetrad shaped
fermented sausages and contanimated off flavor beers (p. damnosus)
Pathway Two (heterofermentative)
Draw
(G - LA, CO2, CH3CH2OH[1ATP/gluc])
Pathway Two (heterofermentative)
Oenococcus
lives on grapes and sig. for wine production and deacidifying wine (converts malic acid to lactic acid)
Pathway Two (heterofermentative)
Leuconostoc
lives on decaying plants and is sig in food dermentations like sauerkraut
Pathway One: Homofermative
Draw
(G —> LA [2ATP/Glucose])
Endospore location in cells
Aids in species idenitification
Central – spore in the middle
Terminal – spre at the tip
Subterminal – btw center and end
A&B toxins, what do they do?
A toxin- lethal (tissue necrosis) causes edema
B toxin- binds to cell surface and delivers A inside cell
2 enterotoxins in GI
Emetic: vomiting (A-B typer)
Diarrheal: made after eating with ab pain
Bacillus species AEROBIC
anthracis
biowarface agent that causes anthrax and 3 other diseases that include: pulmonary (spores into lungs), cutaneous (abrasion on skin), and GI (in food)
Bacillus species AEROBIC
cereus
food borne illness from starchy foods
Bacillus species AEROBIC
C. B. thuringiensis
insecticide (BT) and biodegradable
Bacillus species AEROBIC
D. B. coagulans
glucose isomerase (HFCS sweetner)
Bacillus species AEROBIC
E. B. licheniformis
proteases (Laundry soap)
Bacillus species AEROBIC
F. B. diastaticus
amylases (starch processing)
ANAEROBIC ENDOSPORE BACT.
Clostridium: catalase -, substrate fermented
Sig- cause disease, ecological, and industrial
ANAEROBIC ENDOSPORE BACT.
Types of fermentation
CHOs Acetone
Butonol
Ethanol
c. acetobutylicum


AA/CHO Isovalerate
Isobutyrate c. bifermentation
ANAEROBIC ENDOSPORE BACT.
C. perfringens
food borne, gas gangrene, live cells ingested
ANAEROBIC ENDOSPORE BACT.
C. botulium
food borne illness from homemade canned foods A-B toxin
ANAEROBIC ENDOSPORE BACT.
C. tetani
enters tissue viia wound and blocks the release of glycine-inhibitory transmores to block muscle relaxation causing spastic paralysis
Gas gangrene
infection via open wound, clogs vessels, inhibits CO2 circulation, amputation and by products are H2, CO2
Botilium toxin
binds and enters stimulatory motor neurons, blocks acetylcholine so muscles cannot contract
Mycoplasma (gram +)
pathogens to humans, colonies look like fried eggs
Mycoplasma (gram +)
Spiroplasma
corkscrew shape and plant pathogen
Mycoplasma (gram +)
Anaeroplasma
fermentative in rumen cows and sheeps
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Coryneform
• Arthobacter AEROBIC
dimorphic cell growth cycle
snapping cell divison
uses many substrations
unique cell division
"v" shaped cells
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Coryneform
• Corynebacterium
club shaped cells
pathogens and commerically important
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Coryneform
• C. Diptheriae
normal flora cavity
pathogenic varities
AB type - blocks protein synthesis
EF2- elongation factor
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Coryneform
• C. Glutamicum
makes AA by production via glutamate production, MSG flavor enhancer
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Propienbacterium
• P. Acnes
Prop- aerotolerant anaerobes in GI of mammals and skin

P. acnes- resides in seb. gland and produces acids/odors
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Prop.
• P. Shermanii
gives swiss cheese - aroma, flavor, texture, holes
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Filamentous
Steptomyces
ANAEROBIC
abundant in soil
gives "earthy" smell to soil
sig: commerical antibiotics
large fementation of stretomycin, cholarphenical, and tetracyclines
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Filamentous
Steptomycin
amino sugars and kills gm- bacteria, blocks protein syntheis of 30S RNA
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Mycobacteria
• M. Tuberculosis
AEROBIC
infection of lungs via respiration
labored breathing and damaged tissue

in vitro takes 2 weeks to grow
Actinobacteria (gram +)
• M. Leprae
causes leprosy or Hansen's disease - general infection of body and lesions on the skin
causes nerve damage
organ failure
Actinobacteria (gram +)
• M. Lovis
human-animal pathogen
via GI tract - ingestion of raw milk spreads to respiratory tract
Actinobacteria (gram +)
Bifidobacterium
• Probiotics
* lactic and acetic acid by products
ANAEROBIC
GI in mammals
pills (Acidophilus)
food (yogurt)
**bifidobacterium/lactobacillus
Proteobacteria
Characteristics
largest phylum, gram -
Enteric bacteria group
rod shaped
nonspore forming
aerobes
heterotrophs

GI in mammals
Proteobacteria > Enteric> Mixed Acid fermentaters
Escherichia
normal flora in GI
nonvirulant strains
pathogens virulent
Proteobacteria > Enteric> Mixed Acid fermentaters
Salmonella/Shigella
true pathogens
GI sick
fecal-oral route via food or water
Proteobacteria > Enteric> Mixed Acid fermentaters
Proteus
swarming motility-larger,flagellated
greek ocean god
changed into many shapes
Proteobacteria > Enteric> Mixed Acid fermentaters
Yersina
Yersin, 1894
bubaniuc plague or black death
killed most humans
arthropod born illness via rat and fleas
Proteobacteria > Enteric> solvent fermentaters
Klebsiella
Edwin Klebs
not a true pathogen
pnuemonia
UTI
Proteobacteria > Enteric> solvent fermentaters
Serratia
Serafani Serrat
red pigment
scavanges nutrients
Proteobacteria> Vibrio
Shape?
Habitat?
curved rod
lives in aquatic habitats
fresh/marine
some non pathogens
some diseases in humans via GI illnesses
Proteobacteria> Vibrio
Vibro cholerae
in developing countries
water treatment
Proteobacteria> Vibrio
v. paranemolyticus
common in japan
raw fish
Proteobacteria> protobacterium
bioluminescne
glows in dark lflash light in fish isolated from sea food
Pseudomonas group
shape?
name 2?
chemicals used?
what does it degrade?
rod shaped, oxidase +, aerobic

pseudomonas, xanthomanoas

chemicals used are biofluorescent

degrade o. chemicals like bioremeiation/oil
Ice Nucleation Activity
epiphytic bacteria
pathogenic to plants
early frost dmage
ice at higher temps than normal
Xanthomas
plant pathogens of ice nucleation
Xanthan gum
polymer of glucose
commerical applicatins
- sunny delight
- toothpase
- oil recovery
Proteobacteria> Sheathed
has a life cycle, heterotrophic, motile
lives in freshwater
and prefers in flowing H2O
Proteobacteria> Sheathed
Life cycle
Motile form
have holdfast on cell - oppo of flagella attachs to surfaces - polar flagella
Proteobacteria> Sheathed
Life cycle
NONMotile form
grows attachment to object - chain in cells and divides within sheath
Proteobacteria> Sheathed
Function
Protection in wild, environmental stresses, parasites, and sometimes encrusted with metal oxides
Proteobacteria> Sheathed
Cannot oxide Mn+2
-Sphaerotilis
sewage fungus
found near treatment plant, polluted waters, ind. waste streams
Proteobacteria> Sheathed
Can oxide MN+2
-Leptothrix
MnO2
enzyme located in sheath
Proteobacteria> Sheathed
Cannot oxide Mn+2
-Sphaerotilis blooms
clogs water piles and ruins rec. waters
causes fish kills
Proteobact> Prosthecate Bact
Characteristics? Function? Livs?
posess stalks/hyphae
distince cell shapes
survives higher than normal surface area
lives in low nutrient conditions
lives in water and soil
Proteobact> Prosthecate Bact>
Hyphomicrobium
chemoheterotrophs
hyphase budding division
Proteobact> Prosthecate Bact>
caulobacter
aerobic
chemohetertroph
holdfast on stalk
aqua lifestyle
Proteobact> Prosthecate Bact>
Asticacaulis
hold fast not associated with stall or hyphae
Vibrio> Bdellvibrio
vibro shaped
very small
1 large polar flagellum
parasite GM-
2 forms motile and nonmotile
Vibrio> Bdellvibrio
2 forms motile and nonmotile
Motile- no repro outside
Nonmotile- repro inside host

attacks many GM-