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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
backache and back pain
pain in the back, if an injured person complains of back pain and is unable to move the limbs, the vertebral column may be fractured
excision of one or more spinous processes and the adjacent vertebral laminae, removal of the vertebral arch by transecting the pedicles, allows for access to the vertebral canal and spinal cord (or conus medullaris or cauda equina), used to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots caused by a tumor, herniated disc or bone hypertrophy
dislocation of the cervical vertebrae
can be dislocated easier than other vertebrae bec. of horizontal articular facets, slight dislocation can occur w/o damaging spinal cord (bec. of large vertebral canal in cervical region)
fracture and dislocation of the atlas
vertical forces can cause fracture in the atlas, if fierce enough will cause the transverse ligament to rupture (called Jefferson or burst fracture)
fracture and dislocation of the axis
one of the most common injuries of the cervical vertebrae, usually occurs in the column formed by the superior and inferior articular facets
traumatic spondylolysis of C2
occurs as a result of hyperextesion of the head on the neck (similar to hanging)
paralysis of all four limbs
fracture of the dens
may result from a horizontal blow to the head or loss of bone mass (osteopenia)
T12 vertebrae
most commonly fractured vertebrae
lumar spinal stenosis
narrow vertebral foramen in one or more lumbar vertebrae, may be hereditary, makes a person more vulnerable to age-related degenerative changes such as IV disc bulging, , may cause compression of one or more of the spinal nerve roots
cervical ribs
developmental costal element of C7 becomes enlarged, the extra rib may elevate and place pressure on structures that emerge from the superior thoracic aperture, may be a cause of thoracic outlet syndrome
spina bifida occulta
laminae of L5 fail to develop normally and fuse posterior to the vertebral canal, not associated with back problems though
spina bifida cystica
one or more vertebral arches fail to develop completely, associated with herniation of the meninges and/or spinal cord, surological symptoms are present (paralysis of limbs, disturbance in bladder)
neural tube defects
closure of the neural tube during the 4th week of embryonic development
variations in vertebrae
usually excess in males and shortage in females
aging of the IV Discs
nuclei pulposi dehydrate and lose elastin and gain collagen, become stiffer and more resistant to deformation, nucleus pulposis and annulus fibrosis begin to merge
herniation (or pertrusion) of the nucleus pulposis
can occur where there is excessive pressure on the disc, usually occur in a posterlateral direction, posterior longitudinal ligament prevents the polposis from going straight back to protect equina and spinal cord, in a herniation, the spinal nerve hit is the one below the number, cause of low back and low limb pain (localized)
fracture of the dens
40% of axis fractures, most commonly fractured at the base, often do not reunite bec. the transverse ligament of the atlas becomes interposed between fragments and bec. the separated fragment no longer has a blood supply, resulting in avascular necrosis, also common to have fracture of the vertebral body inferior to the dens (these heal more readily bec. it still has vascular supply)
rupture of the transverse ligament of the atlas
sets dens free, more likely to cause spinal cord compression than that resulting from fracture of the dens, explains why some patients with anterior displacement of the atlas may be relatively asymptomatic until a large degree of movement occurs
crush or compression fracture
occurs at the body of the vertebrae, caused by sudden forcefull flexion
hyperextension injury of the neck
sudden, forceful extension of the neck, likely to injure posterior parts of the vertebrae, also occurs from whiplash, causes sever stretching or tearing in the anterior longitudinal ligament
compression of the lumbar spinal nerve roots
lumbar spinal nerves INC in size from superior to inferior while the IV foramina decrease, this causes an increase in the chance that these nerve roots will be compressed if herniation of the nucleus pulposis occurs
lumbar spinal puncture (spinal tap)
the extraction or sampling of CSF from the lumbar cistern, used in evaluating CNS disorders, patient flexes vertebral column to allow insertion of a needle between lamina and spinous process, puncture dura mater and arachnoid mater
may alter the cells in the CSF or change the concentration of its chemical constituents
spinal block
insertion of anesthesia into the CSF
epdirual block
anesthesia is injected into the epidural space
ischemia of the spinal cord
fractures or dislocations may interfere with the blood supply to the spinal cord, deficiency of blood supply (ischemia) affects its fxn and can lead to muscle weakness and paralysis
lumbar spondylosis
degenerative joint disease that causes localized pain and stiffness
back sprain
an injury in which only ligamentous tissue is involved
back strain
results from overly strong muscular contraction, involves some degree of stretching or microscopic tearing of muscle fibers
back spasm
sudden involuntary contraction of one or more muscle groups
blood flow through cervical vertebral arteries is reduced, prolonged turning of the head may cause light-headedness or dizziness
stress fracture of pars interarticularis, can be caused by repeated stress to the spine, bilateral spondylolysis can cause spondylolithesis
anterior spinal artery syndrome
blockage of anterior spinal artery