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45 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what kind of bacteria are staph
gram? anaerobe? mannose fermenting?
Gram + cocci with grape like clusters
facultative anaerobe
ferments mannose (only s.aureus)
catalase positive
two major causes of hospital-related bacteremias in the U.S.
Staph aureus and staph epidermidis
up to 60% of staph organisms may be resistant to what drug
methicillin (Vancomysin may be drug of last resort)
Staph: gram? shape?
gram positive cocci in grape like clusters
coagulase is a useful distinguishing feature in what kind of staph infections. what is is
an enzyme that clots human or rabbit plasma by activating fibrinogen. distinguishes Staph aureaus
Staph. aureus? catalase? ferments manitol?
catalase positive (strep is catalase neg) and facultative anaerobes
ferments mannitol
colonization by staph of the nasal passages is 30-40% higher in what two catagories of patients
drug users and diabetics
toxic shock syndrome is caused by what toxin
toxic shock syndrome toxin by Staph. aureus
staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is caused by what toxin
exfoliatins by staph. aureus
S. aureus's surface adhesive molecules bind what in host
host's ECM (fibrinogen, collagen, etc) such proteins are often found on damaged "skin" (catheter site), disrupted airways, or endothelial cells in blood stream
s. aureus' alpha toxin does what
lyse host cell membrane
s. aureus leukocidins does what
lysis of leukocytes
s. aureus prtoeases does what
breakdown host proteins
s. aureus coagulase does what
forms clot in human plasma
s. aureus' staphylokinase does what
lysis of blood clot or fibronolysis
s. aureus' hyaluronidase does what
dissolves hyaluronic acid - a component of the host's cellular matrix
s. aureus' lipase does what
dissolves lipids and lipoproteins
a cell wall protein that binds to host IgG via the Fc receptors, leading to "blinding on the wrong end", less complement-mediated killing. it is a B cell super Ag, leading to defective production of specific IgM
Protein A secreted by S. aureus. it helps organism evade host immune system
T cell super antigens which blunts T cell response and is secreted by S. aureus
enterotoxins A-E, G, H, and I

stimulate IL1, IL2, TNF
the capsular polysaccharides on Staph. aureus play a role in what part of pathogenesis
a surface protein that impairs neutrophil recruitment and is secreted by s. aureus
Eap (MAP)
what happens if a s.aureus infection is not contained the host immune system what might happen
invasion in to the bloodstream - blood borne infection would ensue - any organ is at risk
the enterotoxin secreted by s.aureus: heat labile?
heat stabile - resists boiling
many enterotoxins secreted by s.aureus are super antigens which stimulate large amounts of of what 3 cytokines
Il-1 IL-2 and TNF
what are the clinical syndromes in toxin-mediated s. aureus food poisoning case
nausea, vomiting, non-bloody diarrhea (all explained by the T cell super antigen effect)
what toxin causes fever, rash, followed by desquamination of palms, soles, some may have hypotension and shock
Toxic shock syndrome (TSS), caused by s. aureus is characterized
Staphylococcal scalded is secreated by specific groups of s.aureus (phage group II) and is characterized histologically by
superficial layer of epidermis detaching from underlying dermis in response to toxin
invasive diseases caused by s.aureus are characterized by
suppuration and abscess formation
e.g catheter site infections
nasal colonization by s.aureus can be prevented by
intranasal mupirocin
why do you treat s.aureus with semi-synthetic penicillin instead of regular penicillin
because staph synthesizes penicillinase which renders them resistant to regular penicillin but not synthesized penicillin (e.g dicloxacillin, and oxacillin)
Staph species which is coagulase negative and sensitive to novobiocin, does not ferment mannitol, and causes very little hemolysis on blood agar
staph epidermidis
normal flora of skin and is opportunistic pathogen (especially adheres to foreign bodies)
S. epidermidis
surface carbohydrate components on s.epidermidis mediates intercellular adherence or clustering of bacteria - which is called
what is the treatment for S. epidermis
In a tough case of s. epidermis (perhaps where bacteremia has occured) you might want to consider add what two antibiotics to your treatment with Vancomycin
rifampin and gentimycin
Staph species which is coagulase minus and catalase positive, and is RESISTANT to novobiocin
staph. saprophyticus
this staph species is a skin commensal and is a comomon cause of UTIs in young women (second to E.coli in this age group)
s. saprophyticus
urinary tract infection, polyuria and dysuria would be caused by
staph. saprophyticus
what two types of antibiotics would you use to treat s. saprophyticus
a trimethoprim (Bactrim), and quinolone (norfloxacin) - anything that will penetrate into the urinary bladder
color of S. aureus, s.epidermis, and s.saprophyticus colonies
s. aureus is yellow - the other two are white
which staph species ferment mannitol
only s. aureus
whis staph species has DNase, hemolysis
only s. aureus
phage recetpro is useful for typing what kind of staph
s. aureus
staph aureas metabolic characteristics
faculatative anaerobe
how do staph and strep compare in terms of catalase
staph is catalase positive and strep is catalase negative